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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Safe exercises for pregnant women:
o Do not increase HR >140 bpm
o Ab work is ok
What happens to cardiovascular system when pregnant?
RHR elevated by 16 bpm
o RCO elevated 40% during 1st trimester, decreases by 3rd
o SV decreases in 3rd trimester probably due to venous pooling decreasing venous return
Side effects of pregnancy
o LBP, greater lordosis
o Weight gain
o Protruding abdomen, wide gait, center of gravity moves forward
Training effect:
Reversibility: two weeks, significant decrease in ex. capacity; 20 days bed rest decreases VO2 max by 25%
o Visibility: varies
Psychological effects of exercise:
↓ feeling of anxiety, mod depression, severe depression w/ drug therapy, stress
o ↑ self esteem, sleep behavior
What happens when exercise aerobically?
↑ # of capillaries
amount of heat necessary to raise one Kgm of water one °C
unit used to represent energy
Bomb calorimeter
method used to determine heat production by food
o Food oxidized (burned) inside the calorimeter
o Amt of heat produced is measured directly and called direct calorimetery
Heat production for food/body:
o Fat: 9.4 Kcal/gm // same for body
o Carb: 4.2 Kcal/gm // same for body
o Protein: 5.65 Kcal/gm // 4.6 for body b/c bomb oxidizes nitrogen and body does not
Creatine supplement and weight lifting:
o Thought to replenish ATP for energy like creatine phosphate
o Subjects taking CP shortly before lifting were able to lift 8% more than those who did not
Effects of SCI:
o C4: have scapular elevators and diaphragm; no use of extremities
o C5: some function of biceps, deltoid, scapular adductors; no hand fn
o C6: have brachioradialis, wrist extensors, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi; very functional
o T1-5: all UE function; not complete innervation of intercostals and abdominals (respiration)
o L1-3: have hip flexion and adduction; full fn for muscles of respiration; usually good temp control
Exercises for SCI
o Arm ergometer for aerobic training
o Weight training with hand or wrist weights
o Water exercise if pt is safe
o Pulmonary fn exercises
o Slow deep breathing exercises
o w/c push-ups
Why do SCI pts have trouble cooling themselves?
o Decreased activity of sympathetic nervous system
Most common way to get a SCI
Traumatic SCI
MVA, fall, GSW, diving accident
Autonomic hyperreflexia:
o SCI above T6
o Higher centers not controlling sympathetic NS and may lose control
o Painful stimulus (pt not aware), SNS activated, body cannot stop SNS rxn
o Result: nausea, sweating, inc. BP, shivering, headache, etc.
o Without PROM, SCIs develop shortened muscles that will lead to permanent bony contractures
Obesity in children:
o Higher morbidity and mortality in adulthood
o Higher risk of respiratory impairments, diabetes, orthopedic impairments
Difference in obesity and over weight:
o Over weight: based on height/weight tables; 20% mod and 30% severe
o Obesity: based on % of fat in body; males > 25% bf and females > 30% bf
Info included in food intake diary for obese:
o Everything eaten
o How much
o Time of day
o Where person was
o Who with
o How person felt before eating
Cause of obesity
o Eat too much
o Set point too high or low
o genetics
What should exercise prescription for obese include?
o Sit to stand
o Sitting for UE
o Theraband/free weights: curls, overhead press, shoulder abduction and flexion, hip abduction and flexion
o Calorie burning: stairs, park far away, walk
Ways to burn calories in obese:
stairs, park far away, walk
Reasons for obesity
hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes
Guidelines for nutrition for obese
o 10 kcal/lb
o reduce sat fat, use of oils, frying, sugars, fast food
o increase dietary fiber, fruits, veggies, lean meat
o broil or bake
Complications of diabetes mellitus
o Increased risk of amputation
o Heart disease
o Stroke
Exercise for people with DM:
o Aerobic submax
o Morning b/c it tends to be better for glucose control
o Type I: monitor glucose levels at any time during ex
Insulin resistant tissue
Type II
o Ex will halp make the tissues less insulin resistant
Asthma symptoms
o Shortness of breath
o Excessive mucus production
o Wheezing
o Coughing
Who gets asthma?
o 1-2% of adults
o 7% of children
o 10 million ppl
Where is asthma most prevalent?
o Males
o NYC, Cook County IL, Fresno County CA
Exercise prescription for asthma patients:
o 4-6 min workout w/ 5 min break with 20-30 min goal
o intensity starts at 50% of max HR and progress as tolerated
o frequency 5-7 days/week
When do you stop an emphysema patient from exercising?
o When respiration exceeds 30 bpm
Benefits of exercise in elderly:
o Maintain and improve the efficiency of the cardiovascular system
o Slow the decreases in oxygen uptake
o Decrease LE edema
o Increase collateral circulation and overall systemic circulation
o Increases joint mobility, neuromuscular coordination and flexibility
o Muscle strength improves by 200%
o Muscle mass increases by 15%
Considerations for exercise in elderly:
o Must fit person for safety and appropriateness
o Should be based on client goals
o Need flexibility, strength and endurance training
o Check meds from contraindications of ex rx
What to expect in elderly >85:
o 80% will need help w/ ADLs
o wheelchair only mobility
What happens to the heart at age 65?
o Decreased myocardial muscle size
o SA node changes in excitability and loss of nodal cells
o Fibrosis and calcification of heart valves
o Narrowing of coronary arteries
o Loss of arterial elasticity
o Decreased SV and max HR
o Orthostatic hypotension
What happens to the lungs at age 65?
o Decreased number of cilia
o Decreased thoracic wall mobility
o Decreased total lung capacity by 50%
o Weakness of muscles of inspiration and expiration
What causes falls in elderly?
o Vestibular changes
o Loss of bone mass
o Gait changes
What happens to muscles in elderly?
o Not inevitable to lose muscle mass w/ age
o Exercise increases strength in ppl >85
Osteoporosis: progressive bone loss
o May be slowed by mod ex as shown by decreased number of fractures following falls
o Loss of bone related to fractures in elderly
Who gets osteoporosis?
o Women over 35 lose 1% bone mass each year
o Men around 60 years old