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38 Cards in this Set

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Adenine
a double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
AIDS
the late stages of HIV infection. Characterized by reduced number of T Cells; usually results in death caused by opportunistic infections
Anticodon
on a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria.
Carcinogen
a cancer-causing agent, either high-energy radiation or a chemical
Codon
a three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or polypeptide termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
Cytosine
a single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
Deletion
the loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome
DNA Polymerase
an enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template
Double Helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
Duplication
Reptition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis
Guanine
a double-ring nitrogeneous base found in DNA and RNA
HIV
The retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and causes AIDS
Inversion
a change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment in a reverse direction of a chromosome fragment to the original chromosome. Mutagens and errors during meiosis can cause inversions
Lysogeneic Cycle
a bacteriophage replication cycle in which the viral genome is incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage. New phages are not produced, and the host cell is not killed or pysed unless the viral genome leaves the host chromosome
Lytic Cycle
A viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by lysis of the host cell
Messenger RNA
the type of ribonuclieic acid that encodes genetic information from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes, where the information is translated into amino acid sequences
Mutagen
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
Mutation
a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity
Nucleotide
an organic monomoer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
Oncogene
a cancer-causing gene; usually contributes to malignancy by abnormally enhancing the amount or activity of a growth factor made by the cell
Pathogen
a disease-causing organism
Peptide Bond
the covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by dehydration synthesis
Purine
one of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine and Guanine are purines
Pyrimidine
one of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil are pyrimidines
Retrovirus
an RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule. It reverse-transcribes its RNA into DNA, inserts the DNA into a cellular chromosome, and then transcribes more copies of the RNA from the viral DNA. HIV and a number of cancer-causing viruses are retroviruses
Reverse Transcriptase
an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
Ribosome
a cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus
Ribosomal RNA
The type of ribonucleic acid that, together with proteins, makes up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA.
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcritpion, using a DNA strand as a template
Stop Codon
In mRNA, one of the three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop
Sugar-phosphate backbone
the alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached
Thymine
a single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA
Transcription
the synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
Transfer RNA
a type of ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon, picks up a specific amino acid, and conveys the amino acid to the appropriate codon on mRNA.
Translation
the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
Translocation
During protein synthesis, the movement of a tRNA molecule carrying a growing polypeptide chain from the A site to the P site on a ribosome.
Uracil
a single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA