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117 Cards in this Set

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Parental Care
Behaviors of a parent toward an offspring that contributes to the reproductive success of the offspring at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring.
When is parenting rare and when it is common?
Rare in smaller, shorter lived animals e.g. insects. Common in larger, longer lived animals, esp birds and mammals.
Why do mothers provide more parental care than fathers? 3 hypothesis?
i.The Paternal Uncertainty Hypothesis: mothers 100% certain. Males never certain.
ii.The Abandonability Hypothesis: first one who can abandon the offspring does so putting her or his mate in a cruel bind. Internal female fertilization should be linked with heavy female parental care, male is free to leave.
iii.The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis: sex differences in mating opportunity. Mating opportunity costs higher for males than female.
What is the problem with the Abandonability hypothesis?
Internal fertilization (allowing males to leave first) also related to paternity uncertainty. Hard to tell real cause. 78% of male care in species who release gamete (not internal fertilized). But in species who fertilize at same time externally should be 50/50 weather mom or dad care but not so, showing flaw in hypothesis.
When should male parental care be low, and when high?
Rare when costs of missed matings are high. Male PC high when costs of missed matings are low e.g. male stickleback fish.
What is Parental Favoritism and what are three factors that affect it?
Favor offspring who are likely to provide a higher reproductive return on the investment. Evolved mechanisms of parental care sensitive too:
i.Genetic relatedness of the offspring.
ii.Ability of the offspring to convert parental care into fitness.
iii.Alternative uses of the resources that might be available to invest in offspring.
What mechanisms do men have to assess paternity certainty?
Partners sexual fidelity e.g. mate guarding.
Perception of child resemblance to him.
When is a child resemblance to father pointed out?
More likley to point out resemble to father than mother.
More likely when father is present.
Tested by judges-babies do NOT look more like fathers on average.
Are women and men affected the same by children's morphed faces with their own?
Men prefer children's faces that look more like theirs.
Females less affected. Didn't evolve mechanisms because 100% certain of paternity.
What are the 3 predictions of Parental Investment (money) in Children?
1) genetic children more likely to receive money then stepchildren
2) children whose fathers are low in paternity certainty were less likely to receive money
3) children more likely to receive money when child’s mother is fathers current mate. Shows that men’s parental investment as a function of mating effort rather than parental effort.
When is child abuse from parents more risky?
Children living with 1 stepparent 40X more likely to be abused. Risk of death far greater.
Very young children at greatest risk.
What factors effect which children should parents invest in?
1) whether child is born with abnormality.
2) age of child.
Healthy baby hypothesis?
Health status of the child would affect the degree of positive maternal behavior. 4 months half mothers directed more care to healthier babies, other half no preference; by 8 months all mothers showed more care to healthy baby.
At what ages are children at high risk of death and by whom?
Infants highest risk by parents.
Teens highest risk by non-relatives.
Discriminative parental solicitudes?
Mechanisms of parental care that weigh the costs and benefits of the reproductive success of children and thus result in favoring one child over another.
Trivers-Willard Hypothesis?
Parents will invest more in sons when the parents are in good condition and hence have a chance of producing a son who will be highly successful in the mating game. If parents are in poor condition or have few resources to invest, should invest more in daughters. FOUND TO BE TRUE IN POLYGONIOUS SOCIETIES, NOT WESTERN SOCIETIES.
What effects mothers to invest in alternative things instead of investment in children?
1) Young women have many years in which to bear children, older women don’t. Natural selection would favor decision rule that causes older women to invest immediately in children than postpone doing so.
2) Unwed mothers delivered only 12% of babies and were responsible for more than half the sixty-four maternal infanticides that were reported.
What are women's evolved parental mechanisms that are weak in men?
a.Pupil Dilation when shown pics of babies.
b.Women can identify babies by mere smell within 6 hours of birth.
c.Women better at telling facial expressions of infants.
d.Women not affected by previous experience with infants.
What effected how much behavioral parental investment a father will give to child?
High status men devote less time.
Low status men fortunate to have wife, devote more time to PI, compensating for low status.
Parent-Offspring Conflict?
Genetic conflict of interest where children are actually predicted to have conflicts. Parents and children differ in ideal allocation of parents resources.
How is mother genetically related to children? How are children genetically related to each other. How is Child related to his niece?
Mom-child 0.5.
Child-child 0.5. or by 0.25 related through parent.
Child-niece 0.25.
What are predictions for parents and offspring for the parent-offspring conflict hypothesis?
Mechanisms predicted in children to manipulate parents to get more for self.
Parents tilt resources toward own optimum and promote sharing.
What is the conflict over termination of investment? And what are the zones of conflict and agreement?
Mon's choice: wean current offspring and invest in future offspring.
Current child: wants more investment.
Child young: parent and child agree on investment.
Child old (teen): parents wants to wean, child doesn't =disagree.
When would offspring be ok with being weaned?
When weaning benefits twice as much as costs because benefits are devalued by half because related by only .5 to mom.
When does conflict begin?
Before birth. Fetus produces hCG which makes it less likely to abort (very beginning of healthy baby hypothesis-healthy baby more hCG and not aborted). But hCG harms mom = Preeclampsia = high blood pressure.
What are imprinted genes?
Igf2 (insulin-like growth facotr 2) only effective if inherited from father. Increases growth of fetus at expense of mother.
M6p inherited from mom, acts against Igf2.
What is anemia and what is its function in fetal development?
Lack of iron. Iron aids in growth of bacteria, fetus wants to minimize iron = costs for mom.
When will parent-offspring conflict increase and when will decrease?
Increase conflict:
1) child's needs increase.
2) Parents have new baby.
Decrease conflict:
1) parents old can have fewer children and devote more to child they have.
Selection will favor mechanisms for helping kin. The favoring of relatives.
Biological Altruism?
Decrease in RS for the performer and increase RS for recipient. Help mostly kin.
Why has Altruism Persisted?
Helping individual with different genes-helping will be selected against.
Helping individual with same helping genes, helping gene will be selected for.
2 types of genes identity?
Identical by function: same biochemical structure and produce the same phenotype = doesn't equal kinship.
Identical by descent: two genes are copies of same gene in a common ancestor = kinship.
Half sibs related by decent and function.
What is a Hymenoptera and what is so amazing about them?
Ants, insects... They have Eusociality: where have sterile casts, and women take care of young. Males for reproducing. So are sterile casts selected for?
How are Hymenoptera sterile casts selected for?
Males develop from unfertilized eggs. Related 100% to mom (all his genes found in mom). Mom related 50% to son (she has some genes he doesn't). To sister .5.
Females from fertilized egg so like humans, .5 to father, .5 to mother, .25 to brother. TO SISTER 75%. More benefit from helping sister than own children!
Why does alarm calling in ground squirrels get selected for when squirrels get killed more often? Why does it evolve in more?
Parental investment-help more when children are around. Inclusive fitness-help when kin is around. Women are callers more because men leave family and more to new family.
Hamilton's Formula -version #2. What does this rule define?
Brb > Crc.
B= benefit to recipient.
C= cost to donor.
rb= relationship of donor and recipient's offspring.
rc= relationship of donor and own offspring.

Defines conditions under which genes for aid to kin can evolve. people will not necessarily follow this formula, but this formula shows what conditions must be for aid to kin to evolve.
Using Hamilton's Formula, when would you help and when not help?
Help when benefits outweigh costs, and not help when costs to high.
What is inclusive fitness?
Brb (direct benefit to own offspring) + Brc (indirect benefit to kin) = inclusive fitness.

The sum of an individuals own reproductive success PLUS his/her effects on the reproductive success of his her relatives.
Inclusive fitness calculations? And should she help calculations?
Only count offspring that sister had if you help. So Ann had 6 offspring, increase of 4 because your help so count them. You would have had 3. Brb + Brc.
3(0.5) + 4(0.25) = 1.375.

Should she help?
3(0.5) = 1.5 or 4(0.25) = 1 so not help!
What are the implications of Hamilton's rule on siblings birth order? Are there disadvantages for any siblings?
1st born = Conservative & support status quo.
2nd born = rebellious.
Last born = parent's let out all stops.
If parents give equal treatment to all, middle born end up getting less, always someone to share with.
What are 2 factors effect helping in humans. What was found in life or death situation? What was found when included infant death rate?
1) Helping decreases as relatedness decreases.
2) Helping related to age of recipient in bell curve (less as baby, most teen, less elderly). Life or death, help 1 y old and teens same, elderly less. Now days 1y olds and teens have same RS. When included infant death rate choose teens help most.
What are degrees of investment from MoMo, FaFa, MoFa, and FaMo? What is it in this order?
1) Most certain MoMo so most investment.
2) Least certain FaFa so lest investment.
3) MoFa (maternal grandfather) 2nd highest.
4) FaMo 3rd highest.
Infidelity rates higher in 2nd generation. Grandfathers can remember how much mate guarding they did, don't know with sons.
When will the family evolve (3)? When will they not (2)?
Evolve when costs of leaving to high.
1) Not enough reproductive vacancies.
2) Can't leave until big enough to fight= reproductive delay.
3) Benefits of staying at home are large, access to resources.
Will not evolve when costs of staying home to large.
1) Suppress reproductive success.
2) Competition is higher in family, when leave would get lower.
How do Kin recognize relative? What are the learned ones?
1) spatial location = ppl tend to be around you.
2) Frequency/familiarity = ppl you recognize.
3) Phenotype matching = ppl who look like you.
4) Genetic Recognition = recognizing genes signal someone produces.
All learned but genetic recognition.
How does Kin recognition lead to mistakes in current environment?
Direct help to non kin because we live in larger groups than ancestors and recognize non-related people as kin.
Reciprocal Altruism?
Cooperation between 2 or more people for mutual benefit.
What is the Game theory? When will it lead to altruism?
Prisoner's Dilemma = hypothetical situation in which two people have been thrown in prison for a crime.

Rational course for both is to confess. However, when play game again and again with no end in sight, more benefit from helping.
What are Axelrod's three strategies for game theory?
a.Never be first to defect.
b.Retaliate only after the other has defected.
c.Be forgiving.
Evolutionary stable strategy? Is the tit for tat strategy stable?
If most members of the population adopt it, cannot be bettered by an alternative strategy.
What are limitation to Game theory?
Players are equal in power to reward and punish.
Asymmetrical relationships are quite uncommon in everyday life.
Why don't cheaters replace altruists?
Discrimination against cheaters.
Must be able to spot (and punish) cheaters = cheater detection mechanisms.
What determines blood sharing in Vampire Bats?
The more shared time together (friends) more likely to share blood when friend in need. More likely to help the more donor is in need.
How was altruism found to be affected in the lab (asking for someone to make phone call for you, its your last quarter)?
If cost low (only wait short time on hold vs long time) = help.
If benefit high (person urgently needs help vs low urgency) = help.
If reciprocal potential (person you are helping is high status vs low) = help.
What 5 strategies promote cooperation?
1) Enlarge shadow of future-might see this person again.
2)Teach reciprocate.
3)insist on no more than equality.
4)Respond quickly to provocation (cheaters).
5)Cultivate personal reputation for reciprocating.
What is Gross Cheating? What are some examples?
Reciprocating so little, if at all, that altruist receives less benefit from gross cheater than the cost of the reciprocating to the cheater.
Rape, female Cuckoldry, Theft.
Easy to terminate this form of cheating.
What is Subtle Cheating? What is an example?
Individual gives less than partner would give if were reversed.
Husband always doing less than his share of housework.
Hard to terminate this kind of cheating. Are benefiting at least a bit.
Social Contract Theory?
Explains the evolution of cooperative exchange in humans, with emphasis on cheating. Cheaters have an evolutionary advantage unless evolve mechanisms for detecting and avoiding cheaters.
Patient R.M. shows dissociation in what two areas?
Able to reason about precaution rules, but not about social contract problems. Suggests social contract reasoning might be separate and specialized part of the brain.
What is detection of genuineness of altruistic acts? Why do we need it?
along with cheater-detection evolved adaptations to avoid being detected when cheating e.g. increasing subtle forms of cheating.
People look for emotions that lie behind an altruistic act to detect genuine altruists.
Social-exchange Heuristic?
Cognitive adaptation designed to motivate us not to exploit a partner who is cooperating.
Costly Signaling?
Individuals display acts of altruism e.g. throwing parties, showing they are excellent for making good allies, they can afford to do so.
The Banker’s Paradox?
Good credit risks (likely to pay money back), poor credit risks (not able to pay money back). Those who need money most desperately are poor credit risks, so bank ends up loaning money to those who need it least. Similar to dilemma of our ancestors!
Positive externality.
Not really intentional act of altruism. But choose people with positive externalities.
Evaluate who emits positive externalities: big man lives on your block, benefit because fewer criminals prey on you and your family as a result.
Why are we so nice? Studies of Ultimate games show that even if P's can't see each other, still nice. Why?
End up helping! Maybe we are not designed to operate in a single interaction kind of way.
What are 3 emotions of reciprocity and what are their functions?
1) Gratitude: regulates reciprocity, high gratitude = highly likely to reciprocate.
2) Guilt: when fail to reciprocate, motivate to right the wrong.
3) Moral (Anger)Indignation: when altruism is not reciprocated.
What are the 6 origins of aggression and which one is most common?
1) Most common- coop resources from others.
2) Defend against Attack
3) Inflicting Costs on Intrasexual Rivals
4) Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity
5) Deter Rivals From Future Aggression
6) Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies
What are the context specificities of aggression?
status (will it drop or increase).
Retaliatory aggression (what are the costs of getting injured).
Why are Men More Violently Aggressive than Women?
Theory of parental investment and sexual selection.
1) Females invest more = less composition and more choose.
2) Males high reproductive variability more selection favors riskier strategies (including intrasexual competition)
3) Effective polygyny: some males get more females then others, leads to more ferocious competition, polygyny selects riskier strategies.
The Young Male Syndrome? When and in what is highest death rate?
1) Young men appear to be the most prone to engage in risky forms of aggression. Age 10 males and females do not differ—adolescent males killing males is much higher peaking in mid-twenties—by 75 no difference again.
2) Higher death rate from external causes: driver death, homicide...
What contexts 3 trigger Male-Male aggression?
1) Marital status.
2) Employment status.
3) Status and reputation-high status to defend status.
What contexts 2 trigger Male female aggression?
Men kill women, and women kill men in defense of:
1) Sexual infidelity.
2) Terminating relationship.
What contexts trigger female-female aggression? When will this form of aggression work?
Derogation of competitors. Competition over males. Derogation only works when males seeking long-term mate.
What are the 2 theories for evolved Homicide mechanisms?
1) Slip-up hypothesis: homicide as a by product.
2) Evolved Homicide hypothesis: kill under certain circumstances.
Strategic interference theory? What are two predictions from this theory?
Employ a strategy for mating and opposite sex blocks it.
1) Occurs when strategies differ.
2) When conflict occurs, produce negative emotions to motivate actions to counteract problem conflict created.
Chase-Away Model of Sexual Selection? What are two examples?
When optimal mating strategies for each sex do not coincide results in so-evolution of more manipulative male strategies and female resistance.
1) Seminal fluid in fruit flies: decreases female life span, she evolved resistance to this.
2) Smell of urine in house mouse, makes prepubescent female mouse go into puberty. Prepubescent female mice but not other avoid male urine.
4 essential conditions for adaptations for initiation coalitional aggression to evolve?
1) The average long-term gain in reproductive resources must be sufficiently large to outweigh the reproductive costs of engaging in warfare.
2) Members of coalitions must believe that their group will emerge victories.
3) Men must be cloaked in a veil of ignorance about who will live or die.
4) The risks each member takes must correspond to the benefits e.g. men who do not take risks (cheater) must get nothing.
What is the most common conflict in male and female mating strategies? Why?
Over occurence and timing of sex. Men seek minimal investment. Women pursue long-term mating.
What are two inferences males and females make that leads to conflict?
Inferences of sexual Intent: men think women more seductive then they intend. Females report using seduction as manipulation.
Inferences of commitment: men exaggerate commitment, women underestimate men's commitment.
What is the error management theory, what are beneficial errors for males and females.
1) Males would benefit from over-perceiving interest of females = sexual overperception bias.
2) Females would benefit from underestimating men's romantic commitment = commitment skepticism bias.
Sexual Harassment? Who are mostly victims? Why might this be?
Unwanted sexual attention in workplace. Young attractive women mostly victims. Might be because women judge sexual aggression as more upsetting than males and would report it more.
When does unwanted sexual aggression more distressing and less. How do males judge females distressed level.
Women less distressed when male is high status then low status. Males underestimated female distress from sexual aggression.
Crawford's Social Exchange model? What can males and females give?
Male and female trade favors to achieve success. Trade and look for male and female indicators of physical and psychological.
Males: genes, sperm, resources, paternal care.
Females: genes, eggs, resources, maternal care, fidelity.
Buss has a chart for gross cheating in reciprocal exchange of mating. Where is the benefit equal? What is worst for males? Females?
Equal in the middle between both extremes. Worst for males is when females gross cheat and visa versa.
Proximate theory of rape? Is it right? Can they work with Ultimate theories?
Intimidation hypothesis: desire of men to dominate women, would predict females at all ages to be no different in victim level. Stats show rape victims are younger = higher in reproductive success. Yes!
2 Ultimate theories of rape? Is there conclusive evidence?
1) By-product theory of rape: male desire for sexual variety, capacity for aggression, result in rape.
2) Rape-as-an-adaptation: would have a function. Rapists would target high fertile women, which they do-some women will become pregnant, found twice as likely to become pregnant, circumvent female choice, like all men attracted to females when ovulating.
What are the 5 costs of rape for females?
1) Untimely pregnancy.
2) Lack of mate-choice.
3) Victims often blamed.
4) Abandonment by mate.
5) Suffering.
What are the female antirape adaptations?
1.The formation of alliances with other males for protection.
2.Male selection based on men’s physical size and social dominance.
3.Cultivate female-female coalitions for protection.
4.Development of special fears that motivate women to avoid situations which they might be in danger.
5.Avoid risky activity while ovulating.
6.Psychological pain from rape that motivated to avoid in future.
What is sexual withholding? What are the 3 functions?
Women withhold sex. Function to
1) allow choice of partner will to commit.
2) Increase price of female.
3) Increase perception of women's mate value, she is faithful.
Are there differences in jealousy?
Sex Differences in Jealousy found all over the world: women found their partner’s emotional infidelity more upsetting. Men experienced their partner’s sexual infidelity more upsetting. Both experienced equal amounts of jealousy but to different cues of story.
What are the sex differenced in the Mate-Retention Tactics?
1.Conceal partner.
2.Not taking her to a party where other men would be.
3.Insisting that she spend all her time with him.
4.Resort to threat and violence.
5.Resource display.
6.Submission and self-abasement e.g. groveling and saying that they do anything.
1.Appearance enhancement.
2.Inducing jealousy in their partners by flirting with other men in front of them.
Profs research on hormone exposure and hands. What is the difference in male and female ridge count and 2D:4D digit values? Shows within sexual differences in sexual and emotional jealousy?
1) Males tend to have lower digit values = more sexually jealous, males with high values emotionally jealous.
2) Females tend to have higher 2D:4D digit values = emotional jealous, lower values = sexual jealous.

3) Males tend to have more complicated patterns e.g. higher ridge count. fingerprints.
Dominance Hierarchies? What mechanisms will selection favor?
Some individuals within a group reliably gain greater access than others to key resources. Will favor assessment mechanisms, so dont fight a really big guy when small. Stranger in move!
Why do new hens fight to learn who is dominant vs suborn.
Submissive ones avoid injury in the future.
Dominant ones don't always have to continually fight to prove status.
What is the sex difference in status striving?
Male RS more variable than females - status can increase males sexual access, therefore males more status striving.
Does status = sexual access? What about new a days, how might it look?
Yes! Found in old days. Now don't see as much because of monogamy but see in other ways.
Short-term sex.
Affairs- Bill Clinton.
Serial monogamy- trump.
Younger, beautiful women get high status men - Hugh Heffner.
What are the sex differences in Dominance? What was found about high dominant women in the study?
Men perform more and believe egoistic dominant acts.
Women perform more and believe prosocial dominant acts.
Women who are high in dominance, assigned men to dominant role.
What deontic reasoning and indicative reasoning? What do we tend to do when reasoning in these two areas?
Reasoning about what others are permitted to do. We look for rule violations e.g. cheaters.

Reasoning about what is true and false. Look for confirming evidence e.g. confirmation bias.
What are the 3 domain-specific- strategies for reasoning about dominance?
1) Permission, who is allowed to do something.
2) Obligation, who has to do this.
3) Prohibitions, who can't do X, Y, Z.
whats the differences between production hierarchy and
dominance hierarchy?
Dominance hierarchy: determines the allocation of resources.
Production hierarchy: involve coordination and division of labor.
Hierarchies are transient?
A is dominant over B, B over C, so A also dominant over C.
How is status related to looking for cheaters?
Remember low status cheaters more, and more likely to look for rule violations by low status cheaters.
Social Attention-Holding Theory?
Quality and quantity of attention others pay to a person relates to status. High stats better attention.
What kinds of moods are evolved in status increase and decrease?
Increase in helping.
a.Anxiety a function to motive to avoid low status.
b.Shame a function to motive to avoid scorn.
c.Rage a function to motivate an individual to seek revenge on the person who caused the status loss.
d.Envy a function to imitate those who have what we want prompt actions to tear down those who have more than we do.
e.Depression a function to promote submissive behaviors to prevent onslaught or continuation of aggression.
What correlated with Dominance?
Walking fast.
Earn more money.
Win government elections.
How does an increase in testosterone affect status? What is relationship of testosterone and competition?
More testosterone in higher status animals and humans.
Leads to dominance, rebellion, and antisocial acts.
Rise in T before.
After: winner T rises, Loser T drops.
What is the relationship with Testosterone and Marriage?
Married men and men with kids lower T.
Divorced men higher T.
Lower T on weekends with kids.
What is the role of self-esteem in status? Seciometer Theory? What might low self-esteem do?
1) Self-esteem used to indicate other people's evaluations of us. High esteem social acceptance. Low esteem social rejected.
2) Self esteem function to monitor degree of inclusion in our-group. Low self-esteem motivates us to repair relationships.
What does the expanded sociometer theory predict self-esteem functions as?
1) Repair relationship and status when low.
2) Evaluate self in fights.
3) Track desirability on the mating market.
What happened when men and women were exposed to physically attractive and high dominant people of opposite sex?
Women exposed to PA photos rated selves less desirable as mate.
Men exposed to High D photos rated selves as less desirable as partner.
What is the relationship of serotonin and dominance?
High status, high serotonin levels.
Deceiving Down?
Not playing dumb, but pretending to be lower in status than you are. Avoids incurring wrath of occupying a high position within the group. Keep on the down low until good timing.
What are 2 general strategies of getting ahead?
Self-enhancements, or promote the downfall of others.
What is Lekking?
Where men group together and females come and choose a male from the group e.g. birds.
Which sex in the bee-eaters paper by Emlen were mostly helpers? Why? At what age? Why do they help?
Males were because females leave community to new group. Males stay with own family. Young males are recruited because when older can fight back against coercive recruitment. Help because of inclusive fitness.
In the Emlen article on Bee-eaters, how is it that females end up without mates?
Must choose good male that isn't recruited to help. If mate is, end up along and have to parasite.
According to Crawford and Johnston's article, why do men rape?
Low status, low future prospects for reproducing in future and low risk of getting caught-so cue of young attractive female triggers thoughts and feelings to rape.
In the Wilson and Daly article how do homicides start? Who is most victim and commit homicides? What is highest mortality rate in? Why?
Start over some small conflict evolving reputation or status. Young male syndrome, early to mid twenties, unemployed, unmarried. External causes e.g. car accidents. Competition is highest in these men.