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27 Cards in this Set

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the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an envitonment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems
adaptative radiation
alternative versions of a gene
allele
how often an allele occurs or is present in a population of species
allele frequency
a mode of speciation induced than the ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier
allopatric speciation
the ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population
balanced polymorphism
the study of the past and present distribution of the species
biogeography
genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population
bottleneck effect
a pattern of evolutionary change that produces biological diversity by building one or more new species from a parent species that continues to exist; also called branching evolution
cladogenesis
The investigation and comparison of the structures of different animals.
comparative anatomy
natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
directional selection
all the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today
evolution
a preserved remnant of impression of an organism that lived in the past
fossil
genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population
founder effect
the loss or gain of alleles in a population due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations
gene flow
the total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time
gene pool
changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
genetic drift
a condition describing a nonevolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium)
Hardy-Weinburg Rule
a change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation
microevolution
a rare change in the DNA of a gene ultimately creating genetic diversity
mutation
differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool
natural selection
a group of individuals of one species that live in a particular geographic area
population
a special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
sexual dimorphism
the origin of new species in evolution
speciation
group whose members posses similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
species
natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
stabilizing selection
a mode of speciation occurring as a result of radical change in the genome of a subpopulation, reproductivity isolating the subpopulation from the parent population
sympatric speciation
Lyell’s idea that geological processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history
theory of uniformity