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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
retention of juvinail or acnesra featuresin the adut
devalpment of larva
progenisis acelration reach adulthood early
functional gonads
distance method
genitc distance
genetic identity
look at ratlionships molecularly
immunologial distantce
mutational distance
higer vaue mor closly realted
gentic distance / idenati y ar inves of each other
tipes of evolution
paralel -- process
convergant --end structure

directional vs oppertunisice
clausen keck heisey
clinal variasion
slow developmental rates
adild indvndual retaing juvina featurs
background extinition
constant rate of loss over long period of time
widespered but local in scope
95% of loss
enviramnter change tectonics sea leval change
paedomorphosis vs neotony

each can be refart ot one on part ofthe animl nt whol animal
Glogers rule
coloration temperatuer nad humididty
races in warm humid enviments are more pigmented than in colder drine envments (hair)

fur color
warm dry - reds/ yellows
warm humid - lots of melinin
cold humid -- whiteish
cold dry -- tans browm
parapatric vs alopatric
parapatric alopatric
no spacal isolation spacal isolation
overlaping ranges genatic drift
sibling spp
sell faveors isolating mechanisms
that occur at the same time as shifts in
eviranmet nitch
Allens rule
protruding boady parts/ appedages and tempratiure
indivinut in coldre part of cline hav shorter protruding parts than in warmer arias
works in plants
corrilarey to bergmans rule
simpson / grant
common liniage , nitch seletion
common ancestry mophologicaly funtionaly simmlar or dissimilar
mass extintion
loss of alge nuber of indvidis in a short time
5% of losses
same causes as bacgraoud or
catastrphy ect
renschs rule
clutch size and temprature
realted to r and k seletion
# eggs in cluch is smaer as go twards equater (warm) cluch sie is higher away from eq (cold)
true for both warm bloded and cold blod orgs
hedge against unperditab env / crisis
all withing singal spp cline!
compatibility method
asumens most accurat tree is one tih the highest number of compatibiltys mophologica lor molecualr
Bergmans rule
body size and tempratur
vetabert indvaitn in colder areias are larger than tohos in warmer
size decreses in latitudinal cline
surfa ari to voum ratio and heat despresion
examols of circular overlap
grass frogs
grat tit
sycamore CA and AZ
in ciaral al lcan mate exapt termanal ends
rapoports rule
spp. adapted to coller climats have wider distabution of latitueds than werm adapted spp
tropical vs temprat
lookig at diffent spp not with in spp
maximum parsimony
minimize number of evoutaiter chagens reqiert to construct a philogentic tree

rooted tells chrnology and coomon ansester

unrooted no directionality