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25 Cards in this Set

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Describe the over all time table of HIV
Acute phase: Replicates rapidly once inside host. This causes the immune system to mobilize and mass produce cdk T-cells to combat the virus (hence the drop in virus); this takes only weeks
Chronic: the virus begins to mutate as it replicates and the T-cells no longer recognize it
AIDS: the T-cells are rapidly being attacked and killed by the mutant viruses and the virus numbers increase. Once the immune system collapses, the viruses replicate rapidly (can take years)
What's used to combat the HIV virus and how?
Azidothymidine; replaces the Thymidine in the genetic code to prevent reverse transcription from occuring and thus halting the production of the HIV virus
Why are more and more doses of Azidothymidine needed over time and why does it eventually fail?
Because, over time, viruses naturally mutate due to the high rate or error of the reverse transcriptase and thus viruses are created that do not recognize and bind to the AZT and thus no longer fail to transcribe new viruses. Thus, over time, selection favors the AZT resistant strands of the virus
Describe the 4 forces of evolution in terms of the HIV virus
Selection —Faster reproducing strains dominate
Mutation —AZT resistance is a result of selection and mutation
Migration —Prevalence of HIV is a function of human migration
Drift —rare patients with low virulence forms of HIV, CCR5-Δ32 distribution in humans
Where is HIV believed to have come from?
SIV; whose hosts include humans, apes and monkeys
What are some of the topics that support evolution?
•Changes within species
•Similarities between species
•Phylogenetics and Paleontology
What does religion "deal with"
**A religion deals with issues of ultimate concern; with what makes life worth living; with basic attitudes toward fundamental problems of human existence
**A religion presents a comprehensive set of ideas--usually as "truth," not just theory.
**Usually has surface signs (such as clergy) that are identifiable to specific religions
What do many scientists agree is a defining characteristic of science?
The Scientific Method 1.Observation
2.Generation of FALSIFIABLE hypotheses
3.Testing of hypotheses
Why does Intelligent Design fail to fullfil the role of a science?
1) The concept of an intelligent designer is NOT testable.(or at least testable hypotheses are not generated)
2) Experimental testing of the hypothesesare not performed 3)The “intelligent designer”is a supernatural explanation.
What's the definition of evolution?
1.Descent with modification
2.Lasting change in the mean phenotype of a population that transcends the life of an individual
What's wrong with the definitions of evolution?
Evolution is about changes in phenotype; gene frequency is the mechanism for but not actually evolution. Does not allow for non-genetic inheritence (eg: culture)
What are and describe the forces of evolution
1. Mutation: random conversion of one type to another
2. Migration: movement from one pop to another
3. Genetic drift: random changes in gene frequencies
4. Selection: changes due to differential survival and reproduction
What's epistatsis?
One gene alters the expression of another gene that's independently inherited
Roughly, what's polygenic inheritence?
When multiple genes control the expression of a phenotype characteristic
A Mendelian Cross is a special case of what?
The cross between a single male and a single female
Draw a punnett square for the cross of two males and two females; femals genotypes are Aa and AA, the males are the same. Draw it as though the cross of parents is b/w AA and Aa and the offspring cross is Aa and Aa
What's this formual;
p^2 * 2pq * q^2
What's p and what's q?
What's the gene frequency?
Merely counting up all the numbers of alleles for A and a and comparing them to the total number of alleles.
There are a total number of 500 plants. 360 plants are RR, 160 plants are Rr, and 20 plants are rr. What's the genotypic frequency?
R=.9 (400/500)
r= .2 (200/1000 or 1/5)

(slide # 17 of Basic Genetics ppt)
Find the genotype if p=.1 and q=.9
(.1)^2 * 2(.1)(.9) * (.9)^2
.01 * .18 * .81
AA Aa aa
What are the assumptions of the HW model?
1. No migration
2. No mutation
3. No selection
4. No genetic drift
5. Random mating
What's true if HW is happening?
No evolution is occuring
What's gene frequency formula (the one I don't really get)
Gene frequency = homozygotes+ 1/2 heterozygotes

ex: Freq(A) = p2 +2pq/2 = p
How does linkage affect the HW model?
-One locus HWC is restored by one generations of random mating
-Two locus HWC is restored over time, rate depends on degree of linkage.
In HI, what is the prediction of the number of genera and species (in regards to evolution)?
Few genera and many species