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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Evolution?
A way to explain the natural world
What is Creationism?
God created all life spontaneously and species don't change
Who is Charles Darwin?
Writer of Origin of Species and questioned creationism beliefs
What are fossils?
Showed clear progression of evolution over time
What did Lamarck suggest about evolution?
The refinement of traits through the use and disuse of body parts were past on to the offspring
Who was Charlie Lyelle?
A geologist that believed the earth was very old and was shaped from volcanoes and mountains by wind and rain
What is Natural Selection?
Can cause an entire population to change over multiple generations. The fate of the individual is not based on luck or chance.
How do we know evolution has occurred?
1) Fossil Evidence
2) Comparative Anatomy
3) Comparative Embryology
4) Modern Molecular Biology and Genetics
What are some biochemical similarities between species?
1) All cells have DNA
2) All cells have ribosomes + RNA
3) All cells use the same genetic code
4) All cells use ATP
What is a gene pool?
All alleles in a population at any one time
What is Genetic Drift?
When populations evolve due to chance events. Evident when looking at small populations.
What is Micro-evolution?
Changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.
What is Macro-evolution?
The major changes in the history of life which are evident in the fossil record.
What is the biological species concept?
A new species is formed if it can interbreed with itself and produce fertile offspring.
What are the 2 types of reproductive barriers?
1) Prezygotic
2) Postzygotic
What are the 5 different kinds of Prezygotic barriers?
1) Temporal Isolation - different times of year or day
2) Habitat Isolation - land/water
3) Behavioral Isolation - mating rituals
4) Mechanical Isolation - genitalia doesn't line up
5) Gametic Isolation - Different proteins on sperm and egg can't bing
What are the 3 types Postzygotic barriers?
1) Reduced Hybrid Viability - won't reach sexual maturity
2) Reduced Hybrid Fertility - Sterile
3) Hybrid Breakdown - weal/sterile
What does Homologous Structure mean?
Same bone structure among many species
What are the 2 Mechanisms of Speciation?
1) Allopatric Speciation - geographic barrier
2) Sympatric Speciation - origin of species in the same geographical location
What is a Polyploidy organism?
Greater than 2 sets of chormosomes
What is the tempo/pace of evolution?
Sudden appearances of a species to a species maintaining for awhile, to suddenly disappearing.
What is a Punctuated Model?
Rapid Evolution
What is a Graduated Model?
Small changes over time
What is Evolutionary Development?
Changes in regulators that control embryotic development.
What is Paedomorphosis?
Retaining of juvenile features to adulthood
What are Homeotic Genes?
Master control genes that dictate what body parts are going to form and what location
What are the 4 periods on the Geologic Time Scale?
1) Precambrian - origin of earth/fossils
2) Paleozoic Era - plants/fish
3) Mesozoic Era - Dinosaurs
4) Cenozoic Era - Current/Humans/Animals
What is the Hierarchical Classification?
1) Domain
2) Kingdom
3) Phylum
4) Class
5) Order
6) Family
7) Genus
8) Species
What are the 3 domains of life?
1) Eukarya
2) Bacteria
3) Archea
What is a Protist?
Colonial organisms with diverse nutritional and reproductive modes
What are the 4 major categories of Protists?
1) Protozoans
2) Slime Mold
3) Unicellular Algae
4) Seaweeds
What is a Protozoan?
Single celled organism with animal like behavior - Movement
What is a slime mold?
Uses spores to reproduce
What are the 4 major plant groups?
1) Bryophytes - non vascular - moss
2) Ferns - Seedless Vascular - High Structure
3) Gymnosperms - Naked Seed - Pinecones
4) Angiosperms - Flowering Plant
What were the 2 major changes in the Alteration of Generations?
1) Gametophytes - Produce gametes that give rise to Sporophytes
2) Sporophytes - Produces spores which give rise to gametophytes
What is Fungi?
De-composers that break down waste and give nutrient to plants in the soil. Their flat tops reach out to to allow the plant to absorb more nutrients.
What is an animal?
Eukaryotic organism, multicellular, and heterotrophic(food obtained by eating others)
What is the Animal Phylogeny?
How the animals were classified
What are the 9 types of Phyla?
1) Sponges - No tissue
2) Cnidarians - Radial Symmetry - Jelly Fish
3) Molluscs - Bilateral Symmetry - Snails, Clams, Octopus, Squid
4) Flatworms - Tapeworms - Segmented reproduction
5) Annelids - Earthworms - Body Segmentation - complete digestive track
6) Roundworms - Aren't segmented - heartworms
7) Anthropods - Jointed Specialized Appendages - Spiders, crabs, insects, millipeds
8) Echinoderm - Spiny Surfaces - Sea stars, Sea urchins, Sand Dollars
9) Chordates - Most Diverse Group - Humans, Reptiles, Mammals, Fish