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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Iron Curtain
This is a term coined by Winston Churchill that referred to the division of Europe
between those free and democratic countries in West Europe and those under Soviet
domination in East Europe.
United Nations
This was a new organization created by the United States in 1945, and it was
designed to replace the old League of Nations.
Truman Doctrine
This was a doctrine annunciated by President Harry S Truman that stated
the United States would do whatever was necessary to contain communism to those areas
where it already existed
Marshall Plan
This was a plan initiated by the United States in 1947 that pumped billions of
dollars into West European countries in order to help them rebuild from the damage caused by
World War II and to prevent the rise of communist party movements in West European
Berlin Airlift
This was an operation initiated by the United States in 1948 when the Soviet
Union cut off all ground corridors into West Berlin in the hope of forcing out the British, French,
and American troops there. The operation successfully kept West Berlin supplied with food,
fuel, and consumer goods, and in 1949 the Soviet Union finally relented and allowed the allied
powers ground access to West Berlin.
This stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was a collective security
arrangement created in 1949 that included the United States and most West European
countries, and its purpose was to prevent Soviet expansion.
European Union
This was created by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. It had its origin in
several earlier European economic organizations, and it has broken down many economic and
political barriers between European nations.
Warsaw Pact
This was a military alliance created in 1955 as a counterweight to NATO and
included the Soviet Union and all of its East European satellite countries.
Prague Spring
This was a series of reforms launched in 1968 by the Czechoslovakian
reformer Alexander Dubcek. Ultimately, the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries
invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 in order to suppress this reform movement.
Alexander Dubcek
This man was a leader of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party in 1968.
He initiated a series of liberalizing reforms known collectively as the Prague Spring, which was
ultimately suppressed by the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries.
Brezhnev Doctrine
This was a doctrine annunciated by Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev after
the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 to suppress the reforms of Alexander
Dubcek’s Prague Spring. This doctrine said that the Soviet Union had a right and obligation to
invade any communist country whose government was in danger of collapse or overthrow in
order to preserve it.
Solidarity Movement
This was a trade union movement that emerged in Poland in 1980
under the leadership of an electrician named Lech Walesa. It sought to guarantee better
conditions for Polish workers. It was outlawed by the Polish Communist Party in 1981.
Josip Broz Tito
This man was a Serbian who lead a communist insurgency against the Nazi
German occupation of Yugoslavia during World War II. He led Yugoslavia afterward until his
death in 1980, and he conducted the affairs of his country very independently from the Soviet
Dayton Accords
These were an agreement concluded in 1996 that ended the Bosnian Civil
War. According to this agreement, Bosnia was partitioned into a Bosnian Serb republic independent of Serbia and Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian Croatian federation.
Russian Civil War
This was a war from 1918 to 1921 in which the White Army forces
attempted to end the power gained by the communists in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution.
However, Leon Trotsky’s Red Army successfully defeated the White Army.
Proxy Wars
During the Cold War, these were conflicts in which the two superpowers (the
United States and the Soviet Union) did not fight one another but instead supported client states
that were fighting wars to either support or defeat communism. These conflicts included the
Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the War in Afghanistan.
Ural Mountains
This low Russian mountain change is considered by most geographers to the
be the eastern border between Europe and Asia.
Great European Plain
This is the broad, low northern plains that lie to the north and east of
the Alps, Pyrenees and Carpathian Mountains in Europe
Gulf Stream
This is a warm current of water that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and keeps
northwestern Europe, especially the British Isles, quite mild in temperature year round
This is the name given to the French-speaking part of Belgium.
This is the name given to the French-speaking part of Belgium.
This is a dialect of Dutch spoken in the part of Belgium known as Flanders.
This is a branch of the Uralic language family, and it includes Finnish, Estonian,
and Hungarian.
Eastern Rite Catholic
Also called Uniates, these are Christians who, after the Great Schism
of 1054, retained Eastern Orthodox liturgies and practices but continued to remain loyal to the
pope in Rome.
Robert Schumann
This man was the foreign minister of France who, in May 1950, provided
the leadership needed to establish the European Coal and Steel Community.
European Coal and Steel Community
This was a common market created for coal and steel
in 1951 and included six West European nations: Belgium, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg,
and the Netherlands.
“The Six”
These were six West European nations (France, West Germany, Luxembourg,
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Italy) who created the first inter-European organizations such as
the European Coal and Steel Community.
Treaties of Rome
These were treaties by “the Six” in 1957 that created European Economic
Community and the European Atomic Energy Community.
Merger Treaty
This was a treaty signed between the Six in 1967 that created the European
Jacques Delors
This man was the president of the European Commission in 1985, and he
pushed for the expansion of European Community so that it would have a “social dimension”
that included freedom and democracy. This led the way for Maastrict Treaty.
Maastricht Treaty
This 1992 treaty (formally called the Treaty on European Union) created the
European Union as it exists today.
Amsterdam Treaty
This 1999 treaty reformed the European Union by provisions that included
extending the powers of the European Parliament. Moreover, it extended the areas in which the
European Parliament’s veto power including employment, social issues, and immigration.
Nice Treaty
This 2003 treaty did several things to strengthen the European Union. Most
significantly, it strengthened the power of the presidency of the European Commission.
This is a governing principle of the European Union that states that responsibility
for various issues for which the European Union and the member states have oversight
devolves to the lowest level at which it can be effectively addressed. This prevents the central
institutions from becoming too powerful or removed the average European citizen, and it also
prevents over bureaucratization of the European Union.
European Council
This is a body composed of the presidents and/or prime ministers of the
European Union’s member states. Along with the President of the European Commission these
people meet as this body up to four times a year. These summit meetings set overall European
Union policy and resolve issues that could not be settled at the ministerial level, or in other
words by the ministers who are members of the Council of the European Union.
Committee of the Regions
This advisory body was established in 1994, and its members
represent Europe’s authorities at the regional and local level. This body must be consulted by
various European Union bodies before decisions are made on matters that have local and
regional impact.
European Central Bank
This institution is the central bank for the European Union. It was
established in 1998 and is in Frankfurt, Germany. It is responsible for implementing the
European Union’s monetary policy, which includes managing the Euro.
European Investment Bank
This body was established in 1958 by the Rome Treaties. It
lends money to projects of European interest like railroads, airports, and infrastructure
development, especially in poorer parts of Europe and candidate countries. It also provides
credit to small businesses
European Investment Fund
This organization was established in 1994. Its purpose is to
assist small businesses in European Union countries. It provides venture capital to small
companies, especially those that are new firms and technology-oriented businesses. It works in
conjunction with the European Investment Bank.
Article 6
This is the part of the Maastricht Treaty that insures members of the European Union
remain free, democratic countries that insure free market economies. This part of the
Maastricht Treaty states: “The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect
for human rights, and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common
to the Member States.”
Association Agreement
In the European Union, this is an agreement made with a non-
member state that is preparing for full membership. This gives a country candidate status and
moves them move fully into economic and political membership with the European Union.
Common Foreign and Security Policy
This is the term used to describe the European
Union’s common foreign and security policy, which it has developed and adhered to since the
ratification of the Maastricht Treaty.
Rapid Reaction Mechanism
This is a fund that was established by the European Union in
2001. It is designed to provide short-term, rapid funds for countries undergoing crisis or moving
toward crisis.
Schengen Agreement
This is an agreement between ten European Union member states
that essentially makes them borderless. People who live in the signatory countries do not need
passports or visas to travel to another signatory country. They need only show their European
Union identification cards at border crossings.
Helskinki Accords
These were signed in 1975 as part of the Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe. The Soviet Union was guaranteed its sovereignty over the Communist
Bloc countries, and in exchange the Western Bloc received from the Soviet Union promises that
it would respect basic human rights.