Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Wars of Religion
Conflicts between Catholics & Protestants in France, England, Netherlands & Holy Roman Empire,A period of about 100 years beginning in 1560 and ending with the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Wesphalia
1648 Ended Wars of Religion. Renewed Peace of Augsburg accepted Calvinism. Confirmed dissolution of Holy Roman Empire
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese navigator first rounded Africa in 1498 landing on the Malabar Coast (India) Returned in 1502 & established trade fought Arab merchants
First Portuguese governor who established permanent stations in India, Hormuz & East Africa
First to circumnavegate the globe. Found southwestern passage and sailed into the Pacific in 1520
System introduced by the Spanish to moderate exploitation of Indian labor.
The mixture of white and Indians
Large silver mine discored in 1545 in Peru
Commercial Revolution
Economic changes in early modern period signifying rise of a captitalistic economy & transition from town centered economy to nation centered