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18 Cards in this Set

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Wrote Leviathan; thought that people were naturally greedy and selfish; best form of govt = absolute monarchy
Thomas Hobbes

Don't let his smile fool you: Hobbes thought people were brutes!
Thought that humans have natural rights; govt should have limited power; revolution is acceptable
John Locke

"Locke" held the "keys" to revolution!
Studied European govts; praised Britain's govt for its limited monarchy, though he misunderstood how it worked
Baron de Montesquieu

Britain thought it ran things one way, till they saw "Monte"-"skew" their govt in his study!
French philosophe who lived a long controversial life; wrote with sarcasm, mocking aristocrats and advocating social change; exiled and imprisoned
Voltaire

Voltaire's "charged" speech was like a "Volt" of electricity through the "Aire"
French philosophe who edited the Encyclopedia
Denis Diderot

He was smart enough to edit the Encyclopedia, but the real question is: "Did-he-rot?"
Philosophe who believed men are basically good and that society corrupted him; govt should be as limited as possible
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Primitive people are good, says Rousseau, like this farmer who "sows rows"
Female thinker who wrote about equal education for boys and girls
Mary Wollstonecraft
An influential text written by Adam Smith based on principles of free market and supply and demand
Wealth of Nations
Law that governs human nature
Natural law
An agreement where humans give up the state of nature to become part of a society
Social contract
A right that belongs to all humans by being born
Natural right
Thinker who thought that government, law and society could be changed by reason
Philosophe

Philosophes thought they could change society with leaving the Philo-"sofa"!
Think who focused on using reason to change economics
Physiocrat
A kind of economic system in which the govt doesn't interfere with businesses
Laissez faire

Lassie wishes the govt would be more "Lassie fair" and stop taxing her paycheck!
How did the achievements of the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?
The Scientific Revolution convinced people of the power of human reason. They figured if it could apply to science, it could also apply to human nature.
Explain the views of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and the Baron de Montesquieu.
Hobbes thought people were naturally cruel and selfish, and should be governed by an absolute monarch. Locke, on the other hand, thought people were naturally good and should have a more limited government. Montesqueieu admired Britain's government and thought that separation of powrers in government was best.
How did the philosophes influence ideas on society and economy?
The philosophes applied the scientic method to social and economic problems, making people realize that reason could lead to a better society.
How would a conversation go between Mary Wollstonecraft and another philosophe?
The philosophe would no doubt speak of the power of human reason to solve problems, but Wollstonecraft would immediately focus on the problems of education, and the stupidity of the idea that only men can reason and must rule over women.