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74 Cards in this Set

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primate city
a country’s largest city, most expressive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well (but not always)
conurbation
general term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas
supranationalism
a venture involving 3 or more states—political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
devolution
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
shatter-belt
region caught between stronger, colliding external-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (ex. Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe)
infrastructure
the foundations of a society—urban centers, transport networks, communications, energy distribution systems, postal systems, farms, factories, mines, schools, hospitals, and police and armed forces
Balkanization
the fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units
centripetal forces
forces that unite and bind a country together, such as a strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
centrifugal forces
forces that tend to divide a country, such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
continentiality
the variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world’s landmasses—the greater the distance from the moderating influence of an ocean, the greater the extreme in summer and winter temperatures
break-of-bulk port
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another—cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or smaller river boats for inland distribution
irredentism
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nations living in a neighboring state
most populous country in Europe
Germany
3 largest German cities
Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg
highest labor costs in Europe
Germany
only self-sufficient country in Europe
France
has more nuclear plants than any other country
France
among most densely populated region on earth
Benelux countries
headquarters of European Union
Brussels, Belgium
triangular urban core of the Netherlands
Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague
highest per-capita GNI in Europe
Luxembourg
Alpine States
Switzerland and Austria
Western Europe
Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria
leading state in Alpine region
Switzerland
Geneva
one of most international cities in the world
Zurich
financial sector
British Isles
Wales, Scotland, England, Ireland
UK's most affluent subregion
Southern England
Midlands were focus of Industrial Revolution
Northern England
abundance of coal reserves, part of UK
Wales
world class shipbuilding industry
Scotland
trouble between Protestants and Catholics
Northern Ireland
fastest-growing service-based industry in all of Europe
Republic of Ireland
Northern Europe
Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia
largest Nordic country in population and territory
Sweden
second-lowest unemployment rate in Europe
Norway
economy transformed by the discovery of oil in North Sea
Norway
2nd largest population in Nordic Europe
Denmark
triangle of population in Finland
Helsinki, Turku, Tampere
northern most of Baltic States
Estonia
one of highest standards of living due to seafood harvest
Iceland
Mediterranean Europe
Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Cyprus
most populous of Mediterranean states
Italy
economically most advanced in Mediterranean states
Italy
split into two countries, a progressive north and a stagnant south
Italy
Italy's largest city and industrial center
Milan
decentralized its government and formed the Autonomous Communities
Spain
benefits greatly from EU as far as industrialization
Portugal
mainly agricultural economy; lead producer of cork
Portugal
one of Europe's most congested and polluted urban areas
Athens
less than 3% of land is farmable
Greece
source of controversy between Greeks and Turks
Cyprus
countries facing Baltic Sea
Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus
larger than all other states combined in Eastern Europe
Poland
highest growing rate among European states in 2003
Lithuania
economy is improved but geared towards Moscow
Latvia
large industrial center in Minsk
Belarus
the Landlocked Center
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary
leaders in technology and engineering in the East
Czech republic
split from the Czech Republic
Slovakia
has incident of irredentism
Hungary
Countries Facing the Black Sea
Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria,
Eastern Europe's most populous country
Ukraine
largest state in entire realm territorially
Ukraine
Europe's poorest country
Moldova
stagnant economy, in debt
Romania
does not generate much external trade
Bulgaria
Countries Facing Adriatic Sea
Croatia, Albania, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia
highest per capital GNI in "countries facing Adriatic Sea"
Slovenia
serb minority
Croatia
multicultural, landlocked, faced a lot of ethnic problems
Bosnia
southern most Adriatic state
Macedonia
only dominantly Muslim state in Europe
Albania
fastest rate of population growth in realm of Adriatic states
Albania