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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the four steps of the policy process?
Preparation; decision; execution and implementation; controlling
Who starts off the Preparation phase?
Commission by developing policy proposal
Who is involved with Preparation of policy?
Commissioners; cabinets of Commissioners; relative Directorate-generals, specific intersts/lobbies (national experts, reps of civil society) and sometimes EP
What do working groups do in preparation phase?
they are flexible, sector specific, deal with problems, alternatives and solutions
does including more people in the preparation stage slow down the process?
No, because more frequent meetings and longer meetings
What are the four steps of decision-making?
formal initiative; deliberation; negotiation; decision
Who are the actors in decision-making procedures?
Commission, Council, CoR, EESC, EP (not with culture or trade policy)
What is the EP's role in decision-making?
discuss proposal in fraction (parliamentary groups, committees and delegation;
How does the EP vote in the decision-making process?
decide by simple majority unless wants to amend, then absolute majority
Who determines which proposal is given to which committee?
Conference of Presidents assign a repotoire to the proposals;
What does a committee in the EP do? How do they vote?
It comes up with a proposal, which is voted on in the committee by simple majority, then brings to plenary vote which defines position of EP
What does the Council do with a proposal?
pass it down to the COREPER I and II (ambassadors that represent member state) who pass it down to the preparatory committees
What does the COREPER stand for? What does it do?
Permanent Representatives Committee; takes List 1 from prep committees and pass them automatically, take List 2 and votes of them; those which cannot aggre on go with List B, others go with List A sent to Ministers
What does the Council vote on? HOw do they vote?
Vote on B list; sometimes use simple majority (was standard procedure) but usually use QMV. seldom unanimity
Describe QMV of the Council
need 72% in favor (232/321) to pass, with a majority of member states involved (13); member state may ask if it covers 62% of the population
what are the unanimity requirements for the Council?
ammendment to commission proposals; accession of new member states; association treaties with other countries
How does the behavior of states change under the new QMV?
forced to find coaltion partners; more flexible voting;
What is the result of the Execution and Implementation phase?
come out with a legal act: Decision, Regulation, Directive, Opinion/Recommendation
What is Art 202?
for operationalization of decisions council conferred powers of implementation on the Commission
What is the conferrment of powers?
Commission can autonomously enact directive, regulations and decisions; usually adaptation sof existing laws or technical issues
What does the Commission create when enacting implementation? What does this consist of?
Implementation committees; consists of commission reps, reps of member states and civil servants
Why does the Commission have to create implmentation groups?
because the council doesn't trust them
What is Comitology?
it is the group of committees created to deal with conferrment of powers; commission implementing council directive only when it can pass legislative acts without parliament
Who does the controlling?
ECJ and its jurisdiction; Commission also allowed to pass fines
What is the commission's role in controlling?
they have implementation lists telling who has implemented and how; can pass fines on member states
When was the consultation procedure created?
1957 with the Treaties of Rome
What is the consultation procedure? How popular?
Was standard procedure until SEA, hardly used nowadays
What is the formality of the consultation procedure?
council gets commission proposal and send to EP; EP gives opinion and goes back to Council and Commission; COmmission gives informal opinion and Council can enact law; need consult EP but not binding
How does the infomal consultation procedure differ from the formal consultation procedure?
Formally the Council doesn't have to listen to the EP, informally it often does because needs support in future
When was the cooperation procedure created?
SEA (1987)
Describe the cooperation procedure?
EP reads proposal and gives opinion; this is looked at by Council, voted on by QMV; Council tries to implement, creating a"common position" sends back to EP; EP votes (simple majority if accepts, absolute majority if rejects/amends; sends to Commission; if COmmission agrees with amendments, council can pass with QMV, if not by unanimity; if the commission doesn't agree, council can accept original proposal with QMV or amends/rejects unanimously; unanimity if accept without commission or if rejected by EP
How does the cooperation procedure change the power of the institutions?
Gives more power to the EP, and raises stakes for Council
When was the codecision procedure introduced?
TEU (Maastricht treaty) 1992
How many readings in the codecision procedure?
three, the third consists of a conciliation committee
How does the EP and Council have to vote if there is an agreement in the Conciliation committee?
Council QMV, EP absolute majority
What is the EP's role in the Assent Procedure?
The EP must give their assent in order for proposal to pass
What is the Assent procedure used for?
Development funds and cohesion funds, common election procedure, specific international treaties, accession of new members, sanctions, appointment of commission president
How many legal acts were made in 2000? Which procedure was used most?
262; Co-decision used MORE (main procedure)
what is the choice of legal instrucment limited by?
subsidarity (necessary to act?) and proportionality (which is best for achieving objectives?)
What instruments are used in the second and third pillar?
general guidelines, common positions, joint actions and conclusion of international agreements
what are common positions? how does council vote on them? what are their requirments?
Common formulation of political convictions; require unanimity; member states must make sure nat'l policies conform
What in involved in a joint action?
specifies objectives, scope and means made available to Union, conditions for implementation and duration
What does a conclusion of international agreement do? How is it voted on?
Authorizes Presidency to enter into a negotiation; concluded by Council acting unanimously
What were the original sources of revenue?
(1970) agricultural levies; customs duties levied on trade with non-member countries; revenue from value added tax collected in member states (limited 1%)
What did Delors Package introduce?
overall ceiling of 1.2% GNP; fourth source of community financing established based on total GNP; fourth source only used when requirements cannot be covered
What changed in Delors Package II?
Change to structure of Union's own resources, reducing role of VAT and increasing GNP; mandate given to Commission to investigate and report on possible intro of fifth source
Which article specifies the budgetary procedure?
Art 2.7.2
Can the EP amend the budget proposed by Council? binding?
Only in non-compulsory area, sent back to council, not bding
What is the responsibility of the EP in the second reading of the Budgetary procedure?
The EP can discharge the commission or not, and can reject the entire budget and ask for a new one
What is the difference between compulsory and non-compulsory expenditure?
Compulsory is everything that comes directly from treaty law (70-75% of budget); non-compulsory is everything else, science, research (25-30% of budget)
What is commission's role in budgetary procedure?
reduce conflicts, administratory/secretary; budet draft based on how much was spent last year; distributes money
What is the Parliament's role in budgetary procedure?
helps decides how to spend the money, discharges commission or not; control of ENTIRE budget
what is the COuncil's rold in budgetary procedure?
decides how much is spent, interested in net payers and receivers, tries to reconcile agriculture and budget conflicts
What are the areas of conflict in the budgetary procedure?
Definition/classification of compulsory and non-compulsory; Maximum rate of increase (how surplus money be spent in forecasted budget?)
What changes in the Constitutional treaty?
No distinction between compulsory and non-compulsory so EP has more to say