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91 Cards in this Set

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All helmiths are found in the SI, except this one which is found in the LI
Trichuris
How is T.canis transmitted from mom
placenta
milk
How is T.cati transmitted from mom
milk
Where do T.canis and T.cati migrate in the 4-legged body
hepatic
pulmonary
+/- ocular
TX repeated for T.cati/T.canis
Should be repeated in 2-3 weeks.
How should pregnant bitches be TX for T. cati/T.canis?
Fenbendazole daily from day 40 to 2 d post whelp
Two doses of moxidectin
How are hookworms acquired?
prenatally
lactation
through skin
This type of hookworm is MC in dogs and can cause blood loss and hemorrhagic enteritis
Ancyclostoma canium
This hookworm is most common in Southern USA
Ancylostoma brazilense
This hookworm is MC in cats but is still rare?
Ancylostoma tubaeforme
T. canis
T. cati
T. cati
T. leonina
toxocaris leonina
This hookworm causes pedal puritis
U. stenocephalia
This type of tapeworm is MC
Dipylidium canium
What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium canium?
fleas
TX for tapeworms?
Adequate flea control
Praziquantel
This parasite rarely causes C/S but can with concurrent infections.
They are also self limiting infections.
Isospora
TX for Isospora
Sulfadimethoxime or TMS
isospora canis
Cryptosporidium
This organism is an obligate intracellular self limiting diarrhea in dogs/cats
Cryptosporidium
How is Cryptosporidium diagnosed?
very very small
fecal float with oil immersion
modified acid fast stain
How is Cryptosporidium treated?
No RX are consistently efficacious
Disease is self limiting
Where in the GI tract dose giardia live?
SI
How is giardia infection transmitted?
fecal-oral
These genotypes of Giardia infect dogs and cats and this humans
Dogs C &D
Cats F
Humans A&B
How long after infection are oocysts passed?
1-2 weeks
intermittently
Elisa for giardia has this sensitivity and specificity
SN 90%
SP 99%
Combining 3 fecals gives a 95% sensitivity for this cause of diarrhea
SN
TX for Giardia
Metronidazole x5 days
with Fenbendazole x3-5d
What is the generic game plan for chronic ideopathic enteropathies
antiparasites
dietary management
antibiotics
immunosuppression
What antiparasitics is used for chronic ideopathic enteropathies?
fenbendazole
What dietary management is used for chronic ideopathic enteropathies?
antigen limited
inclusion of psyilium or ispaghula promotes colonic health
What antibitocs whould be used for chronic ideopathic enteropathies?
tylosin
metronidazole
or
oxytetracycline
When is it appropriate for immunosuppression TX with chronic ideopathic enteropathies?
when no underlying cause is found
What type of hypersensitivities are food allergies (3)
Type I - IgE
Type II -immune complexes
Type IV - delayed hypersensitivty
What is the proposed hypothesis for food allergy/hypersensitivity?
Breakdown of the mucoasal barrier or immune system dysregulation
What clinical signs would one expect with food hypersensitivities?
skin
GI issues
How is is food allergy diagnosed?
dietary manipulation but dose not DDX food intollerance vs. food allergy
What is food intollerance?
food posioning or pharmacolgical intollerance
What breed has documented Gluten Sensitivitie Enteropathy?
Irish Setters - heritary
Not documented in cats
What occurs at the mucosa with gluten sensitivities?
Directly toxic to the interstinal mucosa or induces an adverse immune reaction
C/S of gluten sensitivity (in Irish Setters)
poor weight gain
chronic intermittent diarrhea
all after weaning
TX: for Gluten Sensitivity?
resolution when fed a gluten free diet
What occurs with SI bacterial overgrowth/AB resoponsive diarrhea?
Overgrowth of bacteria occurs secondary to disorders that control bacteria #
Dose bacterial overgrowth/AB responsive diarrhea occur in cats?
No
What is the hypothesis for why dogs get bacterial overgrowth/AB responsive diarrhea?
defect in mucosal barrier
imporopre mucosal immune response
change in bacteria
Probably a combo of the above
What is the signalment for bacterial overgrowth?
MC in young GSD
Clinical signs for dogs with ideopathic bacterial overgrowth/AB responsive diarrhea?
chronic intermittent diarrhea
weight loss
xs gas
borborygmi
What other diseases should be R/O before TX for ideopathic bacterial overgrowth (3)
systemic disease
EPI
parasites
What used to be the gold standard for diagnosing AB responsive diarrhea?
quantative aerobic/anerobic culture of duodenal juic, but cut off point is disputed
In theory this disease would have ___ folate and __ cobalimin.
increase folate
decreased cobalamin
SIBO
Bacteria synthesize this ___ and bind ____
folate
cobalamin
Best way to diagnose AB responsive diarrhea:
+ clinical response to Ab
Relapse when AB are withdrawn
Remission when re-introduction of Abs
elimination of other causes
What AB & dietary TX should be used for acute responsive diarrhea
oxytetracycline
metronidazole
tylosin
dietary manipulation - digestive low fat and supplement cobalamin
This is a disorder of the SI that has chronic GI signs and histological evidenc of intestinal inflammation
inflammatory bowel disease
Etiology of IBD
unknown
This is the most common IBD (cell type)
lymphcytic-plasmacytic enteritits
For IBD in cats, what is the MC clinical sign - V or D?
vomiting
C/S for IBD in dogs is:
vomiting & diarrhea
Signalment for IBD
middle aged - generally
intermittent signs at an early age
This form of IBD generally has blood or more severe disease
eosinophillic gastroenteritis
Etiology of IBD?
breakdown and intollerance to luminal antigens
How is IBD diagnosed?
biopsy
Ideopathic IBD diagnosed?
diagnosis of inflammation with out obvious underlying cause
What things should be ruled out for diagnosis of IBD?
infectious
diet responsive
AB responsive
What diagnostics should be performed to R/O other causes or DDX to IBD
bloodwork
fecal/giardia
folate/cobalamin
immaging - rads & U/S
Biopsy - endoscopically or laparotomy
If there is a problem with the folate, then the problem is located...
proximal SI
What is the gold starndard diagnosis for IBD?
histopathology
TX of IBD?
dietary modification
AB
immunosuppression
For mild IBD, what TX is appropriate?
dietary change
metrondizale
For cats wtih IBD, what TX works really well?
dietary change and metronidazole
What type of immunosuppression is appropriate for IBD?
prednisone
budesonide
azithroprine
chlorambucil
cyclosporin
How dose budesonide work?
it is locally active steriod. 90% is removed during the first pass in the liver
When TX IBD, if the C/S reoccur as the steriod dosage is reduced, what drug can be added on?
K9: azithroprim
Fe: chlorambucil
What is the prognosis for K9 IBD with severe disease?
poor
What is the prognosis for feline IBD?
remission can be prolonged
What should be done if TX for IBD continues to fail?
ensure not a change of chronic infection to LSA
Besides, ideopathic, what are other causes of lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis
bacterial
toxoplasmosis
What breeds of dogs/cats are more prone for lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritits?
GSD
Shar-Peis
pure bred cats
What age of animals tend to get lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis
tend to be older
> 2 years
WHat C/S are associated with lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis? K9? Fe?
chronic diarrhea
weight loss
Vomiting - cats
What is Basenji Enteropathy?
severe heridatary form of lymphoplasmacytic enteritis
What are the clinical signs of Basenji Enteropathy?
Diarrhea
emaciation
+/- spontaneous perforation
PLE w/ hypoalbumin
How is Basenji enteropathy diagnosed?
biopsy
TX for Basenji enteropathy?
unsucssessful and die within months of diagnosis
This syndrome is unique to Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers
Familial PLE/PLN or both
TX/prognosis for Familial for wheaten PLE/PLN
TX same for IBD
but poorer prognosis