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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Ethics?
Study of rightness and wrongness of actions... actions in relation to:

Humans
Animals
Environment
God or gods
Normative Ethical Question
Any question of ethical rightness or wrongness
Ethical Rule
Definition of rightness and/or wrongness

Guideline or principle that tells us what is right and what is wrong
Who popularized Ethical Egoism?
Socrates
What does egoism say?
An act is right if it has a positive balance of consequences for the agent.

An act is wrong if it has a negative balance of consequences for the agent.
Who is the Agent?
Person doing the act
What is a Perfect Ethical Rule?
An ethical rule that answers EVERY normative ethical question CORRECTLY.
Who made Altruism famous?
Siddhartha Gautama, aka Buddha
What does Altruism?
An act is right if it has a positive balance of consequences for everyone effected by the act except the agent.

An act is wrong if it has a negative balance of consequences for everyone effected by the act except the agent.
Who made Utilitarianism famous?
John Stuart Mill
What does Utilitarianism say?
An act is right if it has a positive balance of consequences for everyone effected by the act.

An act is wrong if it has a negative balance of consequences for everyone effected by the act.
What is a Consequential Ethical Rule?
Ethical rule that uses a balance of consequences to determine the rightness or wrongness of an act.
What is a non-consequential ethical rule?
An ethical rule that does not use a balance of consequences.
What does the Divine Command say?
An act is right if God says it's right.

An act is wrong if God says it's wrong.
What are the potential problems with the Divine Command?
1. Which God?
2. Which version of the text?
3. Which passage?
4. What does the passage mean?
5. Was it translated properly?
6. How do we know God said it?
7. How do we know God exists?
What is Reversibility?
An act is right if the agent is willing to be on the receiving end of the act.

An act is not right if the agent is not willing to be on the receiving end of the act.
What is the main problem with Reversibility?
It only comes down to one person's willingness (Mr. N and the hammer).
Who made Legal Rights famous?
Thomas Hobbes
What were the three main things that shaped Thomas Hobbes' philosophy?
English Revolution
30 Years War
Witch Craze
What does Legal Rights say?
An act is right if it's legal.

An act is wrong if it's illegal.
Where did Thomas Hobbes live?
England
What did Thomas Hobbes discover?
When laws were broken it was pure chaos
What's the main problem with Legal Rights?
Different places have different laws.
Who made Endship famous?
Immanuel Kant
What does Endship say?
An act is right if it treats others as ends.

An act is wrong if it does not treat others as ends.
What is an end?
Someone who makes their own choices
What is the main problem of Endship?
Some people can't make their own choices, and if it cannot apply to all people and situations, it's not perfect.
What rule states that an act is right if the agent is willing for everyone to do the act?
Universalizability

or Categorical Imperative
Who made Universalizability famos?
Immanuel Kant
What does Ethical Relativism tell us?
There is no perfect ethical rule.
What does Ethical Absolutism tell us?
There is a perfect ethical rule.
What are the two basic theories behind Ethical Relativism?
1. Cultural Relativism
2. Individual Relativism
What is cultural relativism?
There is no perfect ethical rule because what's right or wrong varies from culture to culture
What is Individual Relativism?
There is no perfect ethical rule because what's right or wrong varies from person to person.
What is Absolutism?
There is a perfect ethical rule
What are the two main parts of Absolutism?
1. One of the 8 ethical rules is correct (or a combination)

2. There is a perfect ethical rule, we just haven't found it yet
What are the two theories about giving aid to poor nations?
1. Liberal Theory

2. Radical Theory
What does the Radical theory say about giving aid?
It is wrong
Who is a current-day Philosopher that has studied the Radical Theory?
Garrett Hardin
Why does the Radical theory state it's wrong to give aid to people of poor nations?
It is in the best interest of everyone effected by the act that no aid be given
Who are the two groups in identifying everyone effected by the Radical Theory?
1. Givers

2. Recievers
What principle did Garrett Hardin use in defending that it was in the best interest of recievers to not have aid given?
Lifeboat Ethics
What is a Safety Valve?
Excess
What happens as the safety valve decreases?
Chances of survival decreas
What are the three analogies Hardin used with Lifeboat ethics?
1. People on the lifeboat = people of rich nations

2. People in the water = people of poor nations

3. People in the lifeboat giving aid to people in the water = people of rich nations giving aid to people of poor nations
What happens when the rich give money to the poor?
Their safety valve goes down
Why is it in the best interest of the recievers that no aid be given?
Poor nations could become dependant on the aid if aid is given
What may happen in the best interest of the recievers if aid is stopped?
They will have an incentive to develop economic independance
What is an argument?
an attempt to prove a point
What are the two parts to an argument?
1. Conclusion

2. Premise(s)
What is the conclusion of an argument?
The point that's being proven
What are the two definitions of a premise?
1. Piece of Evidence that supports the conclusion
OR
2. Reason(s) why [the conclusion is truthful]
Who was the philosopher behind the Liberal Argument?
Peter Singer
How did Singer define "Must"?
Ethically Right
What were singers three main points?
1. If you can prevent something bad from happening you must.

2. The suffering that results from a lack of food is bad.

3. Affluent people can prevent the pain and suffering that results from a lack of food
What is an affluent person?
Anyone who has money leftover once the necessities have been paid
How did Singer define necessities?
Necessary for survival
How much must be given to the affluent?
Everything leftover after necessities
Finish:
If you can prevent something bad from happening...
...you must.
Finish:
The suffering that results from a lack of food...
...is something bad.
Finish:
Affluent must...
...give aid to the people of poor countries.
Where was the US at war with Japan?
The Pacific Ocean
What happened as we got closer to Japan on the islands?
They sent more and more men
What did people believe would have to happen to end the war?
Invasion of Japan
It was believed that how many people would die in an invasion of Japan?
1 million Japanese, 1/2 million US
The making of the atomic bomb in 1945 was called ...
The Manhattan Project
Who created the Manhattan Project?
United States Government
When was the first atomic bomb completed?
Summer of 1945
Who was the president at the time the first atomic bomb was completed?
Harry Truman
What happened when the atomic bomb was completed?
A warning was immediately issued to Japan
What was the warning issued to Japan called?
The Potsdam Declaration
WHat did the Potsdam Declaration say?
Surrender unconditionally by August 3 or be completely destroyed
Where and when was the first atomic bomb dropped?
Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945
How many people died in the dropping of the first bomb?
200,000:
100,000 instantly plus
100,000 from radiation
WHere and when was the second atomic bomb dropped?
Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945
How many people died in the dropping of the second bomb?
100,000:
50,000 instantly plus
50,000 from radiation
When did Japan Surrender?
August 10, 1945
What was the condition that Japan asked for in surrendering?
"Let us keep our emperor Hirohito"
Who was Japan's emperor?
Hirohito
What were the three basic arguments that said it was wrong for the US to use atomic weapons?
1. Unnecessary

2. Attack on civilians

3. Misplaced Agression
Why would have it been unnecessary for the US to use atomic weapons?
Japan was running out of everything (planes, pilots, fuel, ships, etc)
What was the problem behind an "attack on civilians"
US was cowardly
How was the dropping of bombs "misplaced agression"?
1. They were dropped to scare the Solviet Union

2. They were trying to prevent the Solviet Union from gaining spoils
Why was the US trying to prevent the Solviet Union from gaining spoils?
The Solviet Union was helping the US at first and would want the spoils of victory.
What were the five basic arguments that said it was right for the US to use atomic weapons?
1. They'd been given a chance

2. Best interest of everyone

3. Not "innocent civilians"

4. "they started it"

5. Machiavelli
How was it in the best interest of everyone that the US used atomic weapons?
Would have saved 700,000 Japanese lives and 500,000 American lives
Why were the people killed NOT "innocent civilians"
They were working in factories making the weapons, etc.
How was the "they started it" philosophy used?
Japan was responsible for beginning the war: As such, was responsible for everything that happened in the war.
Who was Machiavelli and when did he live?
Philosopher about 400 years ago
What book was written by Machiavelli?
Prince
What was the statement that Machiavelli made?
"In politics, the end always justifies the means."
What was Machiavelli's philosophy of war?
In war, the goal always makes right the methods used.