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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
arbitary
a statement that is without reasons, or unfounded
arguements
some information"premesis" used to support the truth of another statment
benefits arguement
We ought to do what can benefit someone, if it can be done without harm
consequentialism
the morality of an action lies in it's cosequences, it is the greatest happiness
cultural relativism
the moral thesis that conceptions of right and wrong,moral good and evil vary between cultures ,universal truth in ethics is a myth. There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one socirtal code better than another. There are no moral truths that hold for all people at all times
divine command theory
the moral thesis that the essence of morality is to folloe God's rules in the form commandments:"morallyright" means "commanded by God" and "morally wrong" means "forbidden by God"
emotivism
abut moral judgements. That moral judgements are claims about one's feelings and moral language influences people's behavior by expressing an attitude, but does not state facts
justice
morality requires fairness, assessing people on their individual merits and not punishing the innocent
morality
morality is, at the very least, the effort t guide one's conduct by reason--to do what there are the best reasons for doing--while giving equal weight to the intersts of each individual who will be affected by one's conduct
natural law theory
the world has a natural order and built in rational values and ourposes, when thngs are serving their natural purposes,things are operating as they ought to operate
objectivity of moral truths
moral truths are independent of our attitudes. We can give reasons for why our moral assessments matter
moral preferences
moral judgements are or include expressions of taste: I like honesty in the way I like coffee
reasons
considerations that will influence attitudes and conduct, as the effects of the reasons
ethical subjectivism
morality is the expression of individual opinion, not an appeal to independent facts because there is no objective right and wrong, good or bad.
Moral statements are expressions of one's feelings
simple subjectivism
moral ststements are claims of approval or disapproval as reports of speaker's attitudes. They do state facts
tragedy of the commons
the resources to fulfill our needs are scarce and many require effort in order to produce them, but each seeking their own self interests in the excessive depletion of those resources
ethical relativism
denies the existence of universal moral truths and purposes that right and wrong must be defined variously, based on differences in cultural norms and mores. Whai is morally right is "relative to" one's society and time in history, not absolute across time and cultures.
veil of ignorance-John Rawls
who asks us to choose in a social contract the structure of a just society without knowing what our sex, race, age, or health will be. When the veil lifts, we will discover who we really are, and as such, John Rawls thinks we will choose to make the worst position as good as possible.
tragedy of the commons
the resources to fulfill our needs are scarce and many require effort in order to produce them, but each seeking their own self interests in the excessive depletion of those resources
ethical relativism
denies the existence of universal moral truths and purposes that right and wrong must be defined variously, based on differences in cultural norms and mores. Whai is morally right is "relative to" one's society and time in history, not absolute across time and cultures.
veil of ignorance-John Rawls
who asks us to choose in a social contract the structure of a just society without knowing what our sex, race, age, or health will be. When the veil lifts, we will discover who we really are, and as such, John Rawls thinks we will choose to make the worst position as good as possible.