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149 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The primary value underlying the existence of Ethical Principles is
a. confidentiality
b. the continued properity of the profession
d. the advancement of the welfare of society
e. the advancement and protection of the welfare of the parents of psychologist.
D.
Pro bono work is
a. required
b. encouraged
c. discouraged
d. prohibited
B.encouraged
A psychologist who works as a university prof has not updated his lecture in 10 years. A collegue files a complaint with an ethics committee. What is the General Principle udnerling this case?
a. competence
b. responsibility
c. integrity
d. concern for others' welfare
a. Competence "maintain knowldge of relevant scientific and prof info related to the services they render."
In regard to the personal conduct of a psychologist, the Code of conduct

a. states that it can never serve as grounds for a complaint of unethical bx
b. states that it does not ordinarily fall within the scope of the Principles, but implies that under certain circumstances, it can be grounds for a complaint of unethical bx
c. states that it is within its purview
d. does not address the issue
B.
A psychologist is dating a grad student in his class. The student is older than others in the class and she has returned to school after 15 years. The psychologist's bx is
a. unethical
b. unethical regardless of sexual contact
c. ethical because there appears to be little potential for harm
d. ethical as long as it does not violate any university regulations.
B. unethical - dual relationships
2. You routinely waive the co-payment of your less wealthy clients who are covered by insurange, since you offer patients who are not covered a liding scale. this is
a. legal and ethical
b. illegal but ethical
c. legal, but unethical
d. unethical and illegal
D. In accepting payment from insurance companies you cannot deceive them about any aspect of your financial arrangements with patients. Waiving ore reducing co-payment would be legal and ethical if the insurance co knew that you were doing so.
3. You are seeing a client who is in tx as a condition of probation. The client says he wants to terminate therapy. You should
a. tell him he must stay in tx
b. tell him he can leave, but explain the legal ramifications of doing so
c. terminate tx immediately
d. call the po immediately or as soon as poss
B.
4. When is it acceptable to use a collection agency to collect fees from a pt?
a. never
b. when he owes you a lot of money and you are unsuccessful in reaching him on your own
c. when the pt has been given an opportunity to pay and has been informed of the practice in advance
d. anytime a client owes you money
C. must first inform that such measures will be taken and provides that person an opportunity to make prompt payment
5. You want to work with patients from an ethnic group you've not worked with before. Your best option would be to
a. refer to another therapist
b. read books
c. seek supervision
d. see them anyway
C. seek necessary training, experience, consultation... consultation is usually an appropriate option
6. You are working for the army. A general wants to ask you some questions about a Colonel you've eval. You should
a. get a signed release from your client
b. give him info since you're in the army
c. refuse
d. get a new job
A.A
Which of the following best describes the Ethical Standards' position on barter with patients?
a. permitted for goods but not for services
b. ethical under all circumstances
c. unethical under all circumstance
d. barter for goods or services is unethical under ordinary circumstances, but may be ethical under certain circumstances
D. if not clinically contraindicated and the relationshp is not exploitative
1. Which of the following statements is true regarding computerized interpretations of such tests as the MMPI?
a. Computerized interpretive reports are legitimate and valuable, and they tend to be good substitutes for the clinician's own impressions.
b. interpretive reports are legitimate and valuable when accompanied by a personal eval.
c. the use of computerized reports is unethical
B
2. U are the only psychologist working in a medical clinic and u r about to leave to take another job. You r concerned that some of the files contain data that is outdated. You would bes advised to
a. remove obsolete data from the files
b. take them with you
c. ensure that they r kept in a locked cabinet
d. give them to the director
A
3. U are hired by an organization to assess the iq of a group of new employees. U train an assistant with a BA in sociiology but a minor in psych to administer the WAIS and write the interpretive report. Which of the following is true of this situation?
a. you have acted ethically
b. not enough info provided
c. unthical
d. unethical because the assistant shouldn't be writing the report
D - not qualified
You administer multiple personality and iq tests to a patient. The patient asks to see the results. You should
a. provide her with raw test data - it's their legal right
b. provide her with an oral and written summary of results in clear, understandable language
c. eval their iq, provide results if you feel she's capable of understanding them
B.
The use of personality tests in the selection of employees is

a. clearly unethical
likely to be unethical
c. likely to be ethical
d. clearly ethical
A. The Ethical Standards prohibit misuse of assessment instruments. The MMPI is normed on an inpatient clinical population and thus would not be an appropriate choice.
1. You receive a call from a client who tells u that she is receiving therapy from someone else, but she now wants to see you. You should
a. call the therapist to discuss
b. not see her until she has terminated her relationship with the other therapist
c. make an appt to discuss the situation further
d. ask her why she doesn't want to see the other therapist, and if she has a good reason, set up a series of appiontments.
"in deciding whether to offer or provide services to those already receiving mental health services, psychologist carefully consider the tx issues and the potaential patient's welfare. The psychologist discusses these issues with the patient... in order to minimize the risk of confusion and conflict.... and proceeds with caution and sensitivity to the therapeutic issues.
2. After 3 sessions, aman u r treating in conjoint marital therapy says he wants to see you in individual tx. You should
a. refer him to another therapist
b. tell him to wait until marital therapy is over
c. set an appointment
d. offer a therapeutic interpretation of his request
a. refer him to another therapist
The term "privilege"
a. is defined by the law
b. comes from both the law and the Ethical Standards.
c. means the same thing as the term confidentiality
d. refers to the client's right to dictate the course of therapy
a. is defined by the law
A client's insurance company calls and asks you some information about the client's diagnosis and treatment. You should
a. refuse to give them information.
b. give info only with the consent of the client
c. give info only after you verify the intent of the inquiry
d. give only info that is not damaging to the client
b. give info only with the consent of the client
During a session, a patient of yours who you know is HIV-positive, casually claims that he has been engaging in unprotected sex. You believe he is telling the truth. Is this sufficient grounds for u to break confidentiality, and notify the authorities?
a. yes you should always break confidentiality whenever an individual makes a claim like this
b. Yes, if u genuinely believe he is making a truthful statement
c. No, because therre is no identified third party who is at risk
d. No, you never break confidentiality under any circumstances
C. APA proposes that disclosure is only permitted if 1) there is an identifiable third party at risk, 2) the third party is unaware s/he is at risk, and 3) the client has refused or is not considered reliable to inform the third party
If you receive a subpoena to testify about one of your former clients, you should first
a. ignore it
b. try to work out a compromise
c. agree to provide info
d. find out if the subpoena is legally valid
d. find out if the subpoena is legally valid
1. Whichof the following is true of deception in research?
a. It can b used only if justified by the study's prospective scientific value
b. It can be used in any study, as long as participants are debriefed afterwards
c. it can b used if justified by the study's prospective value, as long as subjects are debriefed within three years from the end of the study
d. It can be used in any study, as long as informed consent is obtained.
A. Deception in research is not permited unless it is justified by the study's prospective scientific, educational, or applied value and "equally effective alternative procedures that do not use deception are not feasible." Choice C is incorrect because subjects must be debriefed no later than at the end of the research, and preferably by the close of their participation in the research.
A grad student complains to her supervisor that she is causing harm to subjects. The supervisor tells her not to worry about it. Later it turns out that one of the subjects was emotionally harmed by the research procedures. Who is reponsible for the apparent ethical violation?
B. The supervisor - psychologist are responsible for the ethical conduct of research conducted by them or by others under their supervision or control.
Informed consent to research is
a. always necessary
b. necessary, unless dispensing with it clearly poses no harm or is scientifically justifiable
c. unnecessary, except in research which poses a clear risk of serious harm to participants
B. The standards do allow for some exceptions to this rule, such as in certain research which employs naturalistic observation or anonymous questionnaires.
1. You r asked by the attorney of a divorced woman to evaluate her. The attorney explains that he would like your opinion regarding whether the woman is more competent as a parent than her ex-husband. As an ethical psychologist, you should

a. evaluate the client and make a report
b. evaluate the client and the children before filing a report
c. evaluate the client, the children, and her husband before filing a report
c. evaluate the client, the children, and her husband before filing a report
The term "insanity"
a. is a legal term that refers to an individual's ability to distinguish right from wrong
b. is a legal term that refers to an individual's competence to stand trial.
a. is a legal term that refers to an individual's ability to distinguish right from wrong.
4. In your capacity as a forensic psychologist, you are ordered by the court to evaluate a celebrity who has been accused of assault and battery. Part of your eval is used in the trial and becomes a matter of public record. At the end of the trial, in which the defendant was found guilty, u write a book which includes info about parts of the eval not mentioned in court. Your actions are
a. ethical and legal, since the eval was court-ordered
b. ethical and legal, since convicted crims have no rights
c. unethical but legal
d. unethical and illegal
C. info disclosed in a court-ordered eval is not privileged. However, psychologist cannot publicly disclose info obtained in court-ordered evals unless it is a mattr of public record or they have the consent of the evaluated client.
You are contacted by the APA Ethics Committee in regard to a complaint filed against you by your client. The committee asks for your records related to the client's therapy with you. You should
a. cooeprate fully with the Committee's request
b. contact the client and obtain a release of info before cooperating
c. contact the client and attempt to settle the matter informally with him
A. Cooperate fully.. confidentiality is not an issue since the committee must obtain a signed waiver of confidentiality from the complainant before taking any action.
You share an office with another psychologist. One morning, you arrive early to the office and find your partner having sex with one of his current patients. You should
a. discuss with him
b. report him to the ethics committee
c. discuss the matter with the patient, and explain 2 her that she has the option to take action against your partner
d. discuss the matter with the patient, and attempt to get her to sign a release of info so you can pursue a complaint.
B. If the violation is not amenable to informal resolution, as in this case, you must take futher action, such as filing a report. Of course, you should protect teh confidentiality rights; thus, in your complaint, you would not provide identifying information about the patient.
If a client tells you that he had sex with a previous therapist, you should
a. have the client sign a release of info, and report the psychologist to the appropriate ethics committee
b. with the client's permission, contact the psychologist yourself
c. report the psychologist to an ethics committee, with or without the client's permission
d. outline the client's rights and options regarding legal action and ethics complaints
D. Reporting the patient's psychologist without the patient's permission would constitute an unauthorized breach of confidence. If you had a waiver of confidentiality, you could make the report yourself, but you can't "have the client sign a waiver" - this implies that you may be placing undue pressure on the client to do something he does not want or is not ready to do.
The primary purpose of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is to
a. provide enforceable standards for handling ethical violations committed by unsavory test developers and users
b. educate test users so that tests are not misused
c. provide criteria for evaluating whether tests are properly used
d. protect the welfare of individual test-takers
C."to provide criteria for the evaluation of tests, testing practices, and the effects of test use."
The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing suggest that test scores should be reported in terms of
a. confidence intervals, or percentile bands
b. the mean score on the test
c. the base rate and selection ratio
d. expected criterion outcome
A. confidence intervals or percentile bands.
A psych at a party is told by another guest that her husband is an alcoholic. The woman fesrs that her husband is going to hurt himself and she doesn't know what to do. The psych gives the woman a referral to a colleague of his, an outpatient psych whose specialty is treating alcoholics. The woman's husband sees the colleague for one session and two days later is seriously injured in a car crash bec he was drunk. The woman sues the psych she met at the party, claiming that he should have referred her to an inpatient tx facility. which is true?
a. the psych is clearly guilty of malpractice
b. the psych is clearly guilty of malpractice, bec he shouldn't have made a referral at a party
c. The psych may be guilty of malpractice, but this is a question that a jury must decide
d. The psych is not guilty of malpractice, since he did not have a prof relationship with the woman or her husband.
D.
Selling questions that appear on the licensing exam is
a. illegal but ethical
d. illegal and unethical
d. selling questions from a licensing exam is a violation of Ethical Standards and a violation of copyright laws
A student complained to the ethics board about an instructor in one of his psych courses. He contended that the instructor did not adequately cover the material, that the tests administered did not adequately assess the students' knowledge, and that the instructor was demeaning and condescenting to the students in the class. The complainant sent two supporting letters from other students. The instructor submitted his course outline, copies of the tests he used, and a written defense pointing out that this particular group was not as knowledgeable about the material as previous classes hehad taught. The best recommendation of the ethics committee would be:
B. re-examine his methods of teaching this particular course
c. not teach this course in the future
d. seek guidance from a more experienced psych in his department
b.low-level step for an offense which is serious but not grave.C. is too extreme and the committee couldn't prohibit him from teaching anyway.
2. You r working in a high school and r asked by the principal to eval a student who is having conflicts with one of his teachers. After evaluating the student and speaking to the teacher, you conclude that the teacher, rather than the student, needs psychological attention. You should
a. tell the principal about the situation
b. talk to the teacher alone
d. have a conference with the student and the teacher
C. The priniciple states that "psychologists seek to contribute to the welfare of those with whom they interact professionally. In their prof actions, psychs weigh the welfare and rights of their ... clients, students... and other affected persons. When conflicts occur, they attempt to resolve these conflicts and attempt to perform their roles in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes hard. In this situation, u must act sensitively to the needs of the teacher the student, and the school. Since it is poss that the prob could be resolved between you and the teacher, and since involving others may embarrass the teacher, the wisest course of action would be to first attempt to resolve the prob with the teacher alone.
10. A psych would routinely ask clients to complete a personality test during the initial phas of the tx relationship. He would not generally review the results with the pt unldess asked. He would then go over the separate scales and tell the pt the score received on each. This type of interpretation and feedback is
a. unethical
b. questionalbe
c. ethical
d. there is not enough info to make a judgment
A. psychs should not routinely give tests unles there is a reason for doing so .... the psych must also take reasonable steps 2 ensure that appropriate explanations of resuls r provided; waiting to be asked for the results is unethical. Finally, giving the patient the names and scores on ea scale is not presenting the terpretation in lang the pat can understand.
A mother's attorney asks u you to eval the mo and her child. The child lives with the fa who is the custodial parent. You should
a. refuse 2 see them under any circumstance
b. determine if the fa knows about and has consented to the eval
c. attempt to eval the entire family
d. eval the mo and child as requested
B. You should not eval the child at the request of a noncustodial parent.... esp their attorney without consent of custodial parent. The psych should always act in the child's best interests - in this scenario you may unnecessarily be placing the child in the middle of conflict between her parents.
12. Which of the following statements regarding grievances about the licensing exam is not true?
a. If you file a grievance, the state board can tell u the mean and the standard deviation of the test
b. if u file a grievance, the state board can give u feedback on your performance on specific questions
d. Grievances are filed through the state board rather than directly through the produces of the exam.
b - the courts have ruled that candidates are not entitled to specific feedback about their performance on exam questions, and that neither state boards not the AASPB (the exam producers) provides such feedback. The board can give you your score, the passing score, the mean, the standard deviation, and other descriptive information about the test results. Moreover, grievances are filed with the state board, which then deals with the ASSPB.
13. U wish to open a mental health clinic in a rural area that will be designed to serve native Americans. From an ethical as well as a practical standpoint, u would be well-advised to
a. include medicine men from the tribe as consultants and mediators
b. inc only licensed psych who have expertise in operating a mental health clinic
d. include people from the area
d. consult the licensing board in the state to see if state law applies to the Native American pop u will be serving.
A.hiring med men would be in live with Standard 1.09, which stipulates that psychs must respect teh rights of others to hold values and opinions diff from their own....."effective psych intervention may be aided by consultation with an/or inclusion of religious/spiritual leaders/practitioners relevant to the client's cultural and belief systems."
A psychologist who has an unresolved charge of sexual harassment against her is not considered for a promotion at the clinic where she works due to the charge. In terms of the provisions of the Ethics Code, this is:
a. ethical since sexual harassment is explicitly prohibited by the Code
b. ethical as long as the psychologist is considered for promotion if acquitted
c. unethical because it violates the explicit requirements of the Code
d. unprofessional but not a ciolation of the Code
c. unethical because it violates the explicit requirements of the Code- prohibits psychologists from denying an individual a promotion simply because a charge of sexual harassment has been made against her or him.
The Ethics Code requires that a psychologist discuss the issue of fees and billing practices with a new client:
a. prior to the first consultation
b. during the first session
c. when the psychologist deems it appropriate
d. as early as is feasible
d. as early as is feasible
A client who terminated therapy with Dr. Jones several months ago calls to request an appointment because she is now very depressed and is feeling suicidal. In the past couple of months, Dr. Jones has been reducing his practice because he is starting another business. The best course of action in this situation is for Dr. Jones:
a. to see the woman until the crisis has passed and then provide her with appropriate referrals
b. to explain to the former client that he is no longer accepting clients and refer her to a colleague
c. to provide the woman with several referrals and ask her to call him if none of those turn out to be satisfactory
d. to provide the woman with several referrals but let her know that he is available by phone in case of an emergency
a. to see the woman until the crisis has passed and then provide her with appropriate referrals (takes the client's welfare in account)
A new client expresses religious and political opinions that are diametrically opposed to your own. Your best course of action would be to:
a. make the difference a topic to be covered in the initial therpay sessions
b. proceed with tx and deal with the difference if the client makes it an issue
c. refer the client to a colleague who feels less strongly about these issues
d. discuss the matter with a colleague to determine how to proceed
d. discuss the matter with a colleague to determine how to proceed
You are a psychologist in private practice. In response to your growing caseload, you decide to bring in a second psychologist. The psychologist will be provided with office space and some secretarial services, and you will charge him 50% of fees collected from patients you refer to him. This is:
a. unethical because referral fees are prohibited by the Ethics Code
b. unethical because 50% is exploitative
c. ethical as long as 50% is standard in your area of practice
d. ethical as long as the 50% reflects your actual expenses
d. ethical as long as the 50% reflects your actual expenses - referral fees are not entirely prohibited
You receive a request from the attorney of a former client of yours for test data that you collected while seeing the client during a period of three years. The client has signed a waiver of confidentiality. You should
a. release the information as requested since confidentiality has been waived by the client
b. release the information only if there is a court order requesting you to do so
c. release the requested information only to a professional who is qualified to interpret it
d. release the test data to the client's attorney along with a written interpretation
c. release the requested information only to a professional who is qualified to interpret it
A former client who you stopped seeing six months ago calls and invites you to lunch. You ecall that this client and you have a number of interests and that you remember thinking that the client was someone you'd like to be friends with. You should:
a. explain to the former client that, as an ethical psychologist, you can't consider friendship until two years have passed...
b. explain to the former client that, as an ethical psychologist, you cannot do so unless two years have passed and it is clear that a friendship is not contraindicated
c. meet the former client for lunch and discuss the potential conflicts that could arise and then proceed with caution
d. explain to the client that a friendship might create problems and would not be in the client's best interests
d. explain to the client that a friendship might create problems and would not be in the client's best interests - the issue of friendship is not direcly addressed by the code but multiple relationships are prohibited under most circumstances. Friendships should be avoided with former clients since this would preclude the person from receiving professional help from the therapist in the future and could create other ethical dilemmas.
When a psychologist's work with a client will be supervised:
a. the client must be told about this arrangment
b. the client must be told about this arrangement and be given the supervisor's name
c. the client must be told about this arrangement only if her identity cannot be disguised
d. the client must be told about this arrangment and, when the supervisor has legal responsibility, must also be given the supervisor's name.
d. the client must be told about this arrangment and, when the supervisor has legal responsibility,must also be given the supervisor's name
You have been seeing a couple in therapy for several months. You erceive a callf rom a social worker who requests that you work collaboratively with him in treating the wife who has just started seeing him in individual therapy. Your best course of action is to:
a. agree to collaborate with the social worker as long as the wife has signed a waiver
b. agree to colaborate with the social worker as long as the wife has signed a waiver and you take steps to maintain the husband's confidentiality
c. agree to collaborate with the social worker only after clarifying the issues with the couple
d. refrainf rom collaborating with the social worker
d. refrain from collaborating with the social worker... the general rule, when working with a couple or family, is to consider the couple of family the client. JConsequently, a psychologist should ordinarily not provide services to one member of the couple of family
Current debates in the literature on dillemmas posed by clients who have HIV/AIDS focus on:
a. whether the client should be warned of the limits of confidentiality
b. whether the client should be hospitalized
c. whether the therapist has a duty to warn in this situation
d. whether the therapist has a right to not treat the client
c. whether the therapist has a duty to warn in this situation - Tarasoff
One of your clients is a 35yo man who was sexually abused as a child by a relative. During the sixth session with you, he tells you that he's been having fantasies about having sexual contact with children. He says he has not acted on these feelings and is very concerned about them. You should:
a. advise him that you are legally required to make a report to the authorities
b. attempt to determine the degree of risk that he will act on his fantasies
c. tell him that this isnot unusual for someone who has been sexually abused and continue working on this issue in therapy
d. contact the authorities immediately without telling him of your intent to do so
b. attempt to determine the degree of risk that he will act on his fantasies
An insurance company is conducting a peer review and requests that you provide information about one of your current clients whose fee is being paid by the company. You should:
a. provide the company with only that info you believe is relevant to the prupose of the review
b. provide the company with only that information you believe will not be harmful to the client
c. provide the company with relevant information after ensuring that steps will be taken to safeguard the client's confidentiality
d. use your best judgment in deciding what to do since this issue is not explicitly covered by teh Ethics Code
c. provide the company with relevant info after ensuring that steps will be taken to safeguard the client's confidentiality
This is most consistent with teh spirit of the Code. Although you are required to provide info to facilitate a peer review, you would first want to discuss the issue of confidentiality.
According to the Ethics Code, deception in research is:
a. unethical
b. ethical as long as the benefits outweigh the risks
c. ethical if the deception is justified by the study's value and there are no other ways to do the research
d. ethical if the deception is justified by the study's values and precautions are taken to cause no harm to subjects
c. ethical if the deception is justified by the study's value and there are no other ways to do the research (closest to the language of the Code)
A new treatment has been successfully used with animals and is now being applied to humans for the first time. In terms of informed consent:
a. no special precautions are required
b. no special precautions are required as long as the research has been approved by the institutional review board
c. no special precautions are required as long as the treatment is not likely to result in harm to participants
d. special precautions must be taken in obtaining informed consents from participants
d. special precautions must be taken in obtaining informed consents from participants
According to the Ethics Code, when conducting a research study with animal subjects:
a. it is never acceptable to terminate an animals life
b. it is acceptable to terminat an animal's life only when the animal is in pain
c. it is acceptable to terminate an animal's life as long as it is done in a humane manner
d. it is acceptable to terminate an animal's life once approval has been obtained from the appropriate review board
c. it is acceptable to terminate an animal's life as long as it is done in a humane manner
You become aware that a colleague has committed an ethical vilation. To be consistent with the requirments of the Ethics Code you should:
a. attempt to resolve the matter informally
b. report the biolation to the Ethics Committee
c. attempt to resolve the matter informally if the violation is minor: report the violation to the Ethics Committee if it is major
d. attempt to resolve the matter informally if it is appropriate to do so; otherwise report it to theEthics Committee -
d. attempt to resolve the matter informally if it is appropriate to do so; otherwise report it to theEthics Committee - closest to the language/remember that the client confidentiality must always be maintained unless the client gives permission
You are hired by the court to evaluate the defendant in a highly publicized murder trial. The defendant is eventually found guilty, and you decide to write a book about your experience and will include only information that is now part of the public record. This is
a. ethical since the information is in the public record
b. ethical as long as you had warned the defendant of the limits of confidentiality prior to the evaluation
c. ethical since the trial is over, and the defendant was found guilty
d. unethical
d. unethical - may not use the evaluation and work produce for other purposes without explicit waiver to do so by the client or the client's representative
You receive a subpoena duces tecum requesting records related to a current client. You contact the client and she refuses to consent to release the information. Assuming that the subpoena is legally valid, your best course of action is to:
a. release the records since it is a valid subpoena
b. release only those records that you believe to be relevant to the court case
c. ask the client to have her attorney respond to thesubpoena
d. attempt to negotiate with the requesting party or seek guidance from the court
d. attempt to negotiate with the requesting party or seek guidance from the court - otherwise assert privilege - this is the APA recommendation (former)
A defendant in a court proceeding is not competent to stand trial if:
a. he has found to be insane
b. he has significantly imparied cognitive abilities
c. he is unable to understand the proceedings against him
d. he is currently suffering from a psychiatric disorder
c. he is unable to understand the proceedings against him
According to APA's guidelines for psychological service to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations, when a client belonging to a different ethnic or cultural group comes to therapy, a therapist is best advised to:
a. treat the client like any other client unless there is reason to do otherwise
b. seek supervision or consultation or, if more appropriate, make a referral
c. modify the diagnostic and tx processes to coincide with the client's background
d. be aware that cultural forces can have an impact on both the therpiist's and the lcient's psychological processes
b. seek supervision or consultation or, if more appropriate, make a referral
Of the cases adjudicated by the APA's Ethics Committee, the largest proportion are related to:
a. faulty diagnosis
b. sexual misconduct
c. inappropriate breach of confidentiality
d. improper billing practices
b. sexual misconduct
In comparison to psychologists who have not become sexually involved with a client, those have had sexual contact with a client are:
a. also more likely to have had sexual contact with a supervisor or their own therapist
b. also more likely to have had non-sexual dual relationshps with their clients
c. more likely to have been sexually abused as a child
d. more likely to be suffering from psychopathology
b. also more likely to have had non-sexual dual relationshps with their clients
The psychology licensing exam is:
a. a means of reducing the number of incompetent psychologists
b. a measure of basic competence inclinical psycholgy
c. a measure of basic knowedge of psychology
c. a measure of basic knowledge of psychology
Following a review of the case, an HMO decide to deny further payment for sessions for a current client of yours. You belive that the client would benefit from additional therapy. You should:
a. comply with the HMO's request as long as the limits of treatment had been discussed with the client at the onset of therapy
b. continue to provide therapy to the clien without compensation if necessary until other arrangments can be made
c. consult with the client about her options in this situation
d. file a formal complaint against the HMO with the insurance commissioner
c. consult with the client about her options in this situation
Ms. Worker is thinking about filing a sexual harassment suit against her supervisor who makes a habit of complimenting her on how she looks, which makes her very uncomfortable. Ms. Worker decides to tell her supervisor that she finds his comments offensive. He says he meant no harm, but that he'll stop doing it if that's what she wants. This situation:
a. represents sexual harassment since the supervisor is in a position of authority
b. represents sexual harassment since the supervisor's comments have created a hostile work environment for Ms. Worker
c. represents sexual harassment only if it is determined that a reasonable woman would find the supervisor's behavior offensive
d. does not represent sexual harassment as long as the supervisor actually refrains from making comments about Ms. Worker's appearance
d. does not represent sexual harassment as long as the supervisor actually refrains from making comments about Ms. Worker's appearance
A researcher calculates a kappa coefficient of .90. This provides evidence of:
a. internal validity
b. construct validity
c. inter-rater reliability
d. internal consistency reliability
c. inter-rater reliability - the kappa coefficient is used to determine the degree of association between scores assigned by different raters and provides information about a measure's inter-rater reliability
Matilda obtains a score of 90 on a test that has a mean of 100, standard deviation of 10, and standard error of measurement of 6. The 95% confidence interval for Matilda's score is:
a. 80 to 100
b. 70 to 110
c. 84 to 96
d. 78 to 102
d. 78 to 102 - the 95% confidence interval is obtained by adding and subtracting two standard errors from the examinee's score
In a multitrait-multimethod matrix, a large heterotrait-monomethod coefficient suggests:
a. a lack of discriminant validity
b. the presence of discriminant validity
c. a lack of convergent validity
d. the presence of convergent validity
a. a lack of discriminant validity - the hterotrait-monomethod coefficient indicates the correlation between two different traits being measured with a similar type of measuring instrument. A large hetertrait-monomethod coefficient indicates a high correlation between the two instruments, suggesting a lack of discriminant (divergent) validity
As a measure's reliability coefficient approaches 1.0, its:
a. standard error of measurement approaches 0.
b. standard error of measurement approaches 1
c. standard error of estimate approaches 0
d. standard error of estimate approaches 1
a. standard error of measurement approaches 0 - Familiarity with the formulas for standard error of measurement and standard error of estimate would have helped you answer thia question. Only the former includes the reliability coefficient. As as measure's reliability increases, measurement error decreases
To reduce the number of false positives obtained when suing a new selection tool, you would:
a. raise the predictor cutoff score
b. lower the predictor cutoff score
c. raise the predictor and criterion cutoff scores
d. lower the predictor and criterion cutoff scores
a. raise the predictor cutoff score - would have the effect of decreasing the number of false positives
If you increase the correlation between a predictor and a criterion from .20 to .40, you have ____ the amount of variability in the predictor that is accounted for by the criterion:
a. halved
b. doubled
c. tripled
d. quadrupled
d. quadrupled - you have to first square the correlation coefficients: .20 squared equals 4% and .40 squared equals 16% is four times larger than 4%. Consequently, increasing the correlation from .20 to .40 quadruples the amount of shared variability (the amount of variability in the predictor accounted for by the criterion).
The relationship between reliability and validity is such that:
a. a test's validity coefficient cannot exceed its reliability coefficient
b. a test's validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliabiltiy coefficient
c. a test's validity coefficient cannot exceed the square of its reliability coefficient
d. a test's reliability coefficient cannot exceed its validity coefficient
b. a test's validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient - reliability places a ceiling on validity. Specifically, a test's maximum validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient. For example, if a test has a reliability coefficient of .81, its validity coefficient cannot exceed .90.
U R a clinical psychologist practicing in a small city. U r treating a client who has presented with probs of gen anxiety and depression. the fourth session is unusual in that the client arrived late. During the 5th session, the client tells you that she was sexually involved with her former therapist but that they are no longer seeing each other. What's your ethical response to this situation?
The client should be encouraged to file a complaint against the therapist (if it's not clinically contraindicated), but the client's confidentiality must be maintained even if she decides not to do so.
According to the research findings of Patterson and his colleagues, parents of aggressive childen typically use discipline which is:
inconsistent and often not associated with the child's behavior
In assessing perceptual abilities in a 3 or 4mo old infant you could use all of the following indicators except:
a. head turning
b. sucking
c. reaching
d. heart rate
a. head turning
______ is often used as a measure of perceptual abilities for infants aged 1 to 4 mos.
sucking
______ is used as a measure of perceptual ability for infants aged 12 weeks or older
reaching
______ is often used as a measure of perceptual ability for any children at any age.
heart rate
According to Holland, a highly differentiated person:
scores high on only one of the six personality types - believed that high differentiation would best predict the outcome of a personality and occupational match
Holland's six personality types?
artistic, realistic, investigative, social, enterprising, and conventional
Super's theory of career development views "career maturity" as:
a. the extent to which a person has mastered the tasks related to her developmental stage
b. knowing how to choose a career that is consistent with your self-concept
a. the extent to which a person has mastered the tasks related to her developmental stage
______ is another important aspect of Super's theory and refers to a person's abilities, interests, values, personality traits, etc.
self concept
Donald Super's proposed five stage model of career development?
growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline
The concept of "identical elements" is most applicable to:
a. personnel selection
b. employee training
c. job analysis
d. Equity Theory
B. b. employee training - concept based on work of learning theorists Thorndike and Woodworth in 1901. Refers to the notion that training is best transferred over to situations which are similar to, or which have "identical elements" with, the training environment. Improves transfer of training for both verbal and motor tasks.
After viewing sexually explicit films, men are more likely to do all of the following except:
a. recommend more severe prison sentences for convicted rapists
b. rape, when the films depict sexual coercion by a man over a woman and if the viewer was sure they would not get caught
c. rate their sexual partners as less attractive
d. interpret a woman's friendliness as a sexual gesture.
a.
which of the following tests would be most appropriate when assessing intelligence of a 10yo non-english speaking child?
a. Raven's Color Progressive Matrices
b. Robert's Apperception Test for Children
c. The Stroop Color Test
d. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale
a. Raven's Color Progressive Matrices
______ is a non-verbal intelligence test for ages 5 through 11- considered appropriate for non-Eng speaking children.
Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices
The _____ is used to assess one's ability to care for oneself.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale
The police inform you that they have a warrant out on one of your clients who is suspected of several felony charges of grand theft. They want you to provide them with the client's address and phone number. You should:
refuse to provide them with the info and notify your client
To reduce their liability risk, managed care organizations are most likely to do which of the following?
a. insure their providers are credentialed
b. reduce the amt of time between date of claim submission and approval of claim
c. utilization review
a.require all providers to be credentialed
______ is a cost containment procedure involving an evaluation of patients' use of services to identify any unnecessary or inappropriate use of health care resources.
Utilization Review
A study designed to identify problem-solving skills among violent offenders and subjects to "think aloud" while they are performing a difficult task. The researcher records what the subjects say and do and later interprets the cognitive processes they used to solve the prob. This is an example of
a. free association
b. retrospective debriefing
c. protocol analysis
d. naturalistic research
c. protocol analysis - qualitative study
_______ is a qualitative approach in which subjects, after working ona problem, are asked how they determined the solution.
retrospective debriefing
Determining test-retest reliability would be most appropriate for which of the following types of tests?
a. brief
b. speed
c. state
d. trait
d. trait - for measuring a stable trait... shouldn't be significantly affected by time
An eigenvalue is the:
a. proportion of variance attributable to two or more factors
b. amount of variance in all the tests accounted for by a factor
b. amount of variance in all the tests accounted for by a factor -
In a factor analysis or principal components analysis, the explained variance, or _______ indicate the amount of variance in all the tests accounted for by a factor.
eigenvalues
Communality is another outcome of a _____.
factor analysis
Strength of the relationship between factors is ______.
main effect
studies investigating the relationship between suicide and health status in the elderly suggest that, for the elderly:
concern about physical health is one of the most comon reasons for suicide in the elderly
The most ominous early warning sign of suicide in adolescent is:
a. giving away prized possessions to friends and family members...
YEAH
The appropriate kind of validity for a test depends on the test's purpose. For example, for the psycho licensing exam:
a. construct validity is most important because it measures the hypothetical trait of competence.
b. content validity is most imp because it measures knowledge of various content domains in the field
b. content validity is most important because it measures knowledge of various content domains in the field
The Personality Disorders vary in terms of their specific symptoms. However DSM identifies which of the following as a diagnostic criterion that they all share in common?
significant distress or impaired functioning
A diagnosis of childhood onset Conduct Disorder:
a. requires an onset of two or more symptoms prior to age 13
b. is equally common in boys and girls
c. is associated with a poorer prognosis than adolescent onset Conduct Disorder
d. is associated with a poorer prognosis than adolescent onset conduct Disorder
Which of the following is true about the use of biodata as a selection tool?
a. it has low validity apprently becuase it is so susceptible to faking.
b. a drawback of empirically-derived biodata forms is that they often lack face validity
b. a drawback of empirically-derived biodata forms is that they often lack face validity
In Super's theory of career development, the rainbow is used to illustrate:
a. the skills, abilities, and knowledge that a person brings to a job.
b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life
c. the stages of career maturity
b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of her life
Since his parents separated four mos ago, Jessie Jr. is withdrawn, cries, and is easily angered for a day or two after visiting his noncustodial father on alternate weekends. When mom asks Jessis Jr. what's wrong, he says "nothing." Mom should interpret this as:
a. a lack of attachment to dad
b. a lack of attachment to mom
d. a normal response
d. a normal response
Delinquency in adolescence is most associated with:
a. low income families and low IQ score
b. weak parental supervision and parental rejection
c. weak parental supervision and parental rejection
As the result of hemorrhage caused by high blood pressure, a middle-aged man experiences heimplegia involving a loss of voluntary movment and flaccid muscles in the right side of his body. The part of the brain most likely affed is:
a. left frontal lobe
b. left temporal lobe
c. substantia nigra
d. cerebellum
a. left frontal lobe
Damage to the ________ produces excessive motor activity, rigidity and tremors (as seen in Parkinson's disese).
extrapyramidal motor system
The basal ganglia and the substantia nigra are part of the _______ system.
extrapyramidal motor system
A headache that begins in the frontal or occipital area of the head and then proceeds to involve a bilateral dull ache is:
a. a common migraine
b. a classic migraine
c. a cluster headache
d. a tension headache
d. a tension headache
______ headaches cause unilateral throbbing pain.
migraine headaches
_____ headaches cause intense pain behind the eye.
Cluster headaches
A psycho's best protection against a charge of malpractice is:
a. insurance
b. informed consent
c. licensure
d. documentation
d. documentation
You are having lunch with a colleague, Dr. O. Timer, who has been a clinical psycho for over 25 years. You and Dr. Timer start talking about the aspects of your work that are most distressful. Like many psychos, Dr. Timer mentions that, most often, the ethical dilemmas he encounters in his practice are related to:
a. deciding when it is acceptable to breach client confidentiality
b. known when to continue versus terminate therapy with a client who doesn't seem to be improving
a. deciding when it is acceptable to breach client confidentiality
Masters and Johnson found that their version of sex therapy, which incorporates education about sexuality, training in communication skills, and the technique known as sensate focus, is most effective for treating:
a. premature ejaculation
b. impotence
c. sexual aversion
d. orgasmic disorder
a. premature ejaculation
Slot machines provide reinforcement on a _____ schedule.
a. variable interval
b. variable ratio
c. fixsed interval
b. variable ratio
According to DSM which of the following types of dementia is most common among those over the age of 65?
a. Vascular Dementia
b. Alzheimer's Type
c. Substance-Induced persisting Dementia
d. Dementia due to Head Trauma
b. Alzheimer's Type
To enhance a work team's creative problem-solving using brainstorming, you would recommend that:
a. team members communicate their ideas directly to one another during team meeting that have a clear time limit
b. each team member communicate her ideas to the team leader who then chooses the best ideas to discuss with the team
c. team members work individually to come up with creative solutions and then presnt their ideas to each other and the leader.
c. brainstorming is btter alone when as a group.
Which of the following contradicts the predictions of Herzberg's two factor theory?
a. workers say the same work-related factors cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work.
b. workers say they prefer leaders who show a high level of instrumentality and consideration
c. job satisfaction and job performance have a reciprocal relationship
d. job enrichment increases satisfaction for both blue- and white-collar workers.
a. - remember that Herzberg views satisfaction and dissatisfaction as separate phenomena.
Which of the following individuals would agree that the acquisition of language is due largely to biologically-programmed capacities?
a. Piaget
b. Vygotsky
c. Chomsky
d. Bruner
c. Chomsky
Apraxis is an inability to carry out purposeful complex movements:
a. and is the result of paralysis or paresis
b. and is related to intellectual deterioration
c. and does not involve paralysis, intellectual deterioration, or sensory loss
d. and does not involve paralysis, intellectual deterioration, or sensory loss
An MRI of a patient in the early stages of Huntington's disease would indicate:
a. no abnormalities
b. overactivity in the temporal lobes
c. reduced volme of the basal ganglia
d. reduced volume of the ventricles
c. reduced volume of the basal ganglia
_____ is due to degeration in several areas of the brain including the basal ganglia and the damage can often be detected by an MRI before the person exhibits symptoms.
Huntington's Disease
Dr. Emm believes that one of his patients would benefit from inpatient tx. The patient's HMO is most likely to approve this type of tx if:
a. Dr. Emm will be providing services at the in-patient facility
b. Dr. Emm is a licensed psycho
c. the patient's presenting prob has become chronic
d. the patient has recently shown a decline in functioning.
d. the patient has recently shown a decline in functioning.
Although a therapy group started out with spontaneous, frequent interactions between group members, it hs taken on a restrictive interaction pattern in which members speak in rotation so that only two or three members get to talk during each session. This is an example of:
a. procedural norms
b. power maintenance
c. task orientation
d. family reenactment
a. procedural norms
From the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy, suicidal individuals are characterized by a high degree of hopelessness coupled with:
a. maladaptive interpretations
b. poor problem-solving skills
c. the cognitive triad
d. impulsiviey
b. poor prob-solving skills - suicide is heightened by a combination of hopelessness and poor problem-solving skills
To reduce a client's fear of cats, a bx psychologist has the client imagine approaching a cat and then, when anxiety occurs, pair that image with deep muscle relaxation. This technique is known as:
a. covert sensitization
b. guided imagery
c. implosive therapy
d. reciprocal inhibition
d. reciprocal inhibition
U r seeing an elderly male in tx. In the lst session he breaks down sobbing and admits he has recently helped his wife, who was suffering from incurable cancer to die. First you need to:
Assess your client's potential for suicide - no breach of confidentiality
Linnehan's dialectical behavioral therapy is a combination of psychoeducation and cognitive therapy that involves
a. intensive individual sessions
b. family therapy
c. individual and group session
c. individual and group sessions
Primary memory is the same as
a. implcit memory
b. short-term memory
c. procedural memory
b. short-term memory
According to Vygotsky, what has the greatest impact on the development of language?
a. social relationships
b. internal cognitive structures
a. social relationships
____ is Vygotsky's term for assistance adults give to children to help them learn about the world.
scaffolding
Hostile pre-schoolers who are aggressive toward their schoolmates exhibited which of the following attachment patterns in infancy?
a. secure attachment
b. anxious/resistant attachment
c. disorganized/disoriented attachment
d. anxious/avoidant attachment
c. disorganized/disoriented attachment
_____ attached babies are anxious when their mo is present and distressed when she leaves.
Anxious/resistant
______ attached babies are uninterested in their environment, show little distress when their mothers leave and avoid contact with her when she returns.
Anxious/avoidant
The onset of a Manic episode after age 45 years may suggest
a. a large genetic component
b. a substance-induced etiology
c. social-cultural factors
b. a substance-induced etiology
Kohlberg would agree with all of the following except:
a. moral development is an outgrowth of cognitive development
b. each stage of development represents an organized whole
c. stage 5 and 6 are not reached by most people
d. moral development stages have an inherent male bias
d.
All of the following are true about the social characteristics of the elderly who appear on tx except:
a. the elderly on tv appear to be more physically fit than the test of the tv pop
b. portrayls of health probs inc with age
c. prime-time romantic involvement inc slightly with age
d. ratings of authority and esteem inc with age.
c.
The percentage of individuals with Alcohol Dependence who experience several complications from Alcohol Withdrawal is about
a. 5%
b. 20%
c. 50%
d. 66%
a. 5%
You've been seeing a female client in therapy for over a year and on your birthday she arrives with a beautifully gift-wrapped sweater and birthday care. You should:
explore the meaning of the gift - unethical to keep though
Your client arrives at the 4th session with a small handgun in his coat. He says that when he leaves the session he is going to go by his ex-wife's house and "shake up her new husband a bit." He assure you that the gun is not leaded. You should:
c. alert the new husband if possible
Some studies indicate that the rate of ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity among identical twins with ADHD to be
a. .20
b. .40
c. .60
d. .80
d. bullshit
Your client is a 30year old man who has just discovered he is HIV positive. He wonders what to tell his wife, who knows nothing of his previous sexual hx. Your first intervention should be:
c. refer him for medical advice
Bill comes to session and reports that for the last five months, hiw wife and employer have been poisoning his food. In addition, his next door neighbot has assisted them by switching lunch boxes with him. The local DJ is in on the scheme, telling him over the radio to eat right to stay fit. The appropriate dx is:
Schizo, Paranoid Type
A friend of yours was involved in a car accident three weeks ago in which the other driver was killed. She tells u that she needs to see you for tx and that she is having dreams about the accident. She has been unable to drive or ride in a car and she tells u that she feels nothing about the accident. You refer her to another competent therapist who will probably diagnose your friend with
a. Acute Stress Disorder
a. Acute Stress Disorder - the same symptoms will need to continue beyond one month for PTSD
A new client comes to your office. He explains that he has found a road map of Nebraska in his glove compartment and that his car has Nebraska plates. He recently discovered his driver's license was also issued in Nebraska. He has no idea of who he is. Your office is in NYC and your dx for this client is:
a. Factitious Disorder
b. Dissociative Amnesia
c. Dissociative Fugue
c. Dissociative Fugue
According to current research, the Rorschach has very low validity. This statement is:
d. false - validity is roughly equivalent for both MMPI and the Rorschach