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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who created the Modern Argument?
Ann Gary
What two premises are in the Modern Argument?
1. Porn is harmful to women because it transmits two basic messages...
2. Porn creates a lack of respect for women becouse it shows women as sex objects
What two basic messages does porn teach about women?
1. Women mean yes when they say no
2. women want to be raped
Who says Porn is right?
James A. Gould
What are the 8 premises that say Porn is right?
1. There's no proof that porn causes crime and violence
2. Porn may reduce crime and violence because of its cathartic effect
3. Educational
4. Enjoyable
5. Freedom of speech/expression (1st amendment)
6. Wrong to censor porn because that opens the door to further censorship
7. Porn is artistic and art is good
8. 9th Amendment (right to privacy)
What two government commissions studied the link between porn and crime? What did they say?
1. Obscenity commission: There is no evidence that porn causes crime and violence
2. Meese Commission: Porn may or may not cause crime and violence
What are some ways humans use animals other than food?
Test products
Religious services
Who argues that it's wrong to use animals as food?
Peter Singer
What does Singer believe in?
What is Speciesism?
Disciminating against something because it's of a different species
What are Singer's 7 premises?
1. Animals are sentient beings
2. IT's wrong to make sentient beings suffer within reason
3. The belief that animals can't think is not a good reason to make animals suffer
4. The process of using animals for food is painful for the animals
5. The process of using animals for food wastes food
6. If we did not waste food in this manner, there would be enough food to feed everyone
7. A vegetarian diet is as nutritious as an animal-based diet
What is sentient?
Capable of experiencing pleasure and pain
Why does using animals waste food?
It takes 10 pounds of grain to get 1 pound of meat
What four premises says it's right to use animals as food?
1. If humans did not use animals as food, it would be harmful to animals
2. If humans did not use animals as food, it would be harmful to humans
3. The process of using animals for food does not waste food.
4. The process of using animals for food is natural
How is using animals for food beneficial to animals?
How does using animals for food benefit humans?
Why doesn't using animals for food waste food?
Who argued that censorship is right?
What 3 premises argue that censorship is right?
1. Our behavior is shaped by our enviroment
2. Some of the thigns we see, hear and read create bad ethical behavior
3. The development of good, ethical behavior is more important that freedom of expression
In what ways has the media influenced us?
-violence toward women
-Teenage sex
-Evil is glorified
What is Affirmative Action?
Giving preferential treatment to groups of people
What are some examples of AA?
What argument says AA is right?
Pedulum Argument
What does the Pendulum argument say we are fighting?
Lingering effects from pst discrimination
What are the four premises of the Pedulum argument?
1. Many groups have been discriminated against in the past
2. These groups today are experiencing lingering effects of past discrimination
3. In order to overcome the lingering effects of past discrimination, AA is necessary
4. The goal of AA is equality
What did the 15th amendment say?
You can't deny someone the right to vote based on race
What oulawed literacy tests?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Why did Southern whites say literacy tests were right?
1. If ou can't read, you can't be informed on the issues
2. Uninformed voters could make bad political decisions
3. Potentially, everyone can be harmed by these bad political decisions
What law created separate but equal?
Plessy v. Ferguson
Why did the whites argue that segregation is right?
1. Racial purity is good
2. Integration allows the races to interact
3. If the races interact, they will procreate
4. The purity of the white race and the purity of the black race will be destroyed
What two things ended segregation?
1. Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka
2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
What did Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka say?
Separate but equal was no longer allowable in public education
What did the civil rights act of 1964 say?
1. No discrimination based on race in businesses that are open to the public
2. No racial discriminnation in employment
Why is AA wrong?
1. AA is potentially harmful to everyone
2. AA is harmful to the people AA is trying to help
3. AA is discrimination and discrimination is wrong
4. AA is misplaced punishment
Why is AA harmful to the people it's trying to help?
1. It teaches people that they can't compete (they're not equal)
2. It's an incentive to under-achieve
3. It sets people up to fail
4. People under AA are hired as tokens, percieved as underskilled and underqualified
5. It creats a backlash
What is a backlash?
When you create what it is yo're trying to eliminate
Why is AA discriminitory?
Reverse discrimination
Who aregued that AA was reverse discrimination?
Alan Bakke
Why should have Bakke been let into the school of his choice?
His GPA and scores were higher than the 16 non-whites admitted
Bakke claimed he was a victim of what?
Reverse Discrimination
In what case did the supreme court rule that Bakke was a victim of reverse discrimination?
Regents of the Universtiy of California v. Bakke
What does Euthanasia involve?
1. Killing of a person
2. Killing is intentional
3. Person killed is suffering from an ailment for which no reasonable hope of surviving exists
Why is voluntary euthanasia right?
1. It prevents suffering for the individual who is euthanized
2. It prevents suffering of those who aren't euthanized
3. It is a matter of personal choice
What are two types of euthanasia?
1. Voluntary euthanasia
2. Directed euthanasia
What is voluntary euthanasia?
When the person who is euthanized gives consent to be euthanized
What is directed euthanasia?
When the person who is euthanized has not given consent to be euthanized
WHo says Euthanasia is wrong?
J. Gay Williams
WHy is euthanasia wrong?
1. It goes against human nature
2. God says it's wrong
3. The medical profession is not perfect
4. Knowing that we can choose to die takes away our will to survive
5. If euthanasia is allowed, doctors and nurses might not do everything possible to save the patient
6. If euthanasia is allowed, where will it end?
Why does Euthanasia go against human nature?
We all have a goal: to survive
What race/gender was Alan Bakke?
White male