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18 Cards in this Set

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Pyelonephritis Acute: Affects _______ of kidney
cortex
Pyelonephritis Acute: Spares ____________
glomeruli/vessels
Pyelonephritis Acute: _______ _______ in urine are pathognomonic
WBC casts
tremor, tachcardia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, delirium tremens are symtpoms of what?
alcohol withdrawal
when do you get symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?
in case of physiological tolerance and dependence when intake is interrupted
what is disulfiram and how does it work?
disulfiram is a pharmacological treatment of alcoholism - negatively conditions patient against EtOH
a good possible referral to sustain EtOH abstinence in alcoholics
Alcoholics Anonymous and other peer groups
3 mechanisms of EtOH action
1) interpolates into membranes --> toxic effects, partic. in brain 2) alcohol dehydrogenase converts EtOH to acetaldehyde, forms adducts with proteins and nucleic acids, converted to acetate, Ac-CoA, FA synthesis, fatty liver 3) increased NADH/NAD ratio
Condition in which these are seen: hepatitis and cirrhosis, pancreatitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar degeneration, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, testicular atrophy and hyperestrinism, and Mallory-Weiss syndrome
alcoholism
name histological type of cirrhosis in alcoholism
micronodular cirrhosis
accompanying symptoms of alcoholic cirrhosis
jaundice, hypoalbuminemia, coagulation factor deficiences, portal hypertension
list clinical findings in alcoholic cirrhosis besides jaundice
peripheral edema and ascites, encephalopathy, neurologic manifestations (asterixis, flapping tremor of hands)
What is the cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
thiamine (B1) deficiency, particularly in alcoholics
what is the presenting triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy?
psychosis, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia
distinguishing features of Korsakoff's from Wernicke's
in Korsakoff, also *memory loss*, confabulation,confusion.
is Korsakoff's syndrome reversible?
No.
Tx for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
IV Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
What is Mallory-Weiss syndrome?
longitudinal lacerations at the gastroesophageal junction caused by excessive vomiting (for ex., in alcoholism) with failure of LES relaxation that could lead to fatal hematemesis