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26 Cards in this Set

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Ball Valve
Valve having a ball-shaped internal component with a hole through its center that permits water to flow through when aligned with the waterway.
Broken Stream
Stream of water that has been broken into coarsely divided drops.
Class A Foam
Foam specially designed for use on Class A combustibles. These foams are becoming increasingly popular for use in wildland and structural fire fighting. Class A foams, hydrocarbon-based surfactants, are essentially wetting agents that reduce the surface tension of water and allow it to soak into combustible materials easier than plain water.
Class B Foam
Foam fire-suppression agent designed for use on un-ignited or ignited Class B flammable or combustible liquids.
Cooling
Reduction of heat by the quenching action or heat absorption of the extinguishing agent.
Eduction
Process used to mix foam concentrate with water in a nozzle or proportioner; concentrate is drawn into the water stream by the Venturi method; also called induction.
Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP)
Foam concentrate that combines the qualities of fluoroprotein foam with those of aqueous film forming foam.
Fire Stream
Stream of water or other water-based extinguishing agent after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point.
Foam
Extinguishing agent formed by mixing a foam concentrate with water and aerating the solution for expansion; for use on Class A and Class B fires. Foam may be protein, synthetic, aqueous film forming, high expansion, or alcohol type. Also known as Finished Foam.
Fog Nozzle
Nozzle that can provide either a fixed or variable spray pattern. The nozzle breaks the foam solution into small droplets that mix with air to form finished foam.
Fog Stream
Water stream of finely divided particles used for fire control.
Handline Nozzle
Any nozzle that can be safely handled by one to three firefighters and flows less than 350 gpm (1 400 L/min).
Injection
Method of proportioning foam that uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate into the fire stream at the correct ratio for the flow desired.
In-Line Eductor
Eductor that is placed along the length of a hoseline.
Latent Heat of Vaporization
Quantity of heat absorbed by a substance at the point at which it changes from a liquid to a vapor.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Form provided by the manufacturer and blender of chemicals that contains information about chemical composition, physical and chemical properties, health and safety hazards, emergency response procedures, and waste disposal procedures of the specified material.
Nozzle Pressure
Velocity pressure at which water is discharged from the nozzle.
Polar Solvents
Flammable liquids that have an attraction for water, much like a positive magnetic pole attracts a negative pole; examples include alcohols, ketones, and lacquers.
Premixing
Mixing premeasured portions of water and foam concentrate in a container. Typically, the premix method is used with portable extinguishers, wheeled extinguishers, skid-mounted twin-agent units, and vehicle-mounted tank systems.
Proportioning
Mixing of water with an appropriate amount of foam concentrate to form a foam solution.
Separating
Act of creating a barrier between the fuel and the fire.
Smothering
Act of excluding oxygen from a fuel.
Solid Stream
Hose stream that stays together as a solid mass as opposed to a fog or spray stream. A solid stream is produced by a solid-bore nozzle and should not be confused with a straight stream.
Vaporization
Process of evolution that changes a liquid into a gaseous state. The rate of vaporization depends on the substance involved, heat, and pressure.
Venturi Principle
Physical law stating that when a fluid, such as water or air, is forced under pressure through a restricted orifice, there is an increase in the velocity of the fluid passing through the orifice and a corresponding decrease in the pressure exerted against the sides of the constriction. Because the surrounding fluid is under greater pressure (atmospheric), it is forced into the area of lower pressure. Also called Venturi Effect.
Water Hammer
Force created by the rapid deceleration of water causing a violent increase in pressure that can be powerful enough to rupture piping or damage fixtures. It generally results from closing a valve or nozzle too quickly.