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20 Cards in this Set

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Integumentary System
The skin and accessory structures, such as hair, nails, and glands.
p 99
List the major functions of the Integumentary system:
1. Protection
2. Sensation
3. Vitamin D production.
4. Temperature regulation.
5. Excretion.
p 99
Hypodermis/subcutaneous tissue
Not part of the skin, attaches to the underlying bone and muscle and supplies it with blood vessels and nerves. Funtions also as padding and insulation.
p 99
Dermis
A layer of dense connective tissue, contatins fibroblasts, fat cells, and macrophages. Nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands and lymphatic vessels extend into the dermis. Collagen and elastic fibers are responsible for the structural strength of the dermis.
p 99
Epidermis
A layer of epithelial tissue that rests on the dermis.
p 99 & 101
What is thicker on an average, epidermis or dermis? By how much?
The dermis is 10 to 20 times thicker, on the average.
p 99
How does melanin affect skin color?
Melanocytes produce melanin, which is responsible for different radical skin colors. Melanin production is determined genetically but can be modified by hormones and ultraviolet light.
summary
How does carotene affect skin color?
Carotene, a plant pigment ingested as a source of vitamin A, it will cause the skin to appear yellow.
summary
How does collagen affect skin color?
Scattering of light by collagen produces a bluish color.
summary
How does oygen and blood flow effect skin color?
Increased blood flow produces a red skin color, whereas a decreased blood flow causes a pale skin color. Decreased blood oxygen results in the blue color of cyanosis.
summary
Hair
Are columns of dead, keratinized epithelial cells. Each hair consists of a shaft(above the skin), root (below the skin), and hair bulb (site of hair cell formation).
summary
What does sebaceous glands produce?
Produce sebum, which oils the hair and the surface of the skin.
summary
What does merocrine sweat glands produce?
Sweat which cools the body.
summary
What does apocrine sweat gland produce?
Produce an organic secretion that can be broken down by bacteria to cause body odor.
summary
Explain a little about vitamin D
Vitamin D is formed when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light to a precursor molecules. The molecules is carry to the liver, where it is modified, and then to the kidneys, where the precursor is modified further to form active vitamin D.

Vitamin D stimulates calcium and phosphate uptake in the intestines. These substance are necessary for normal bone metabolism and normal muscle function.
p 105
How does oxygen and blood flow effect skin color?
Increased blood flow produces a red skin color, whereas a decreased blood flow causes a pale skin color. Decreased blood oxygen results in the blue color of cyanosis.
summary
How can the integumentary system be used as diagnostic aid?
It is observed easily and often reflects events occuring in other parts of the body. The outside of the body reflects what is occuring inside the body.
p 107
Basal cell carcinoma
The most frequent skin cancer, begins with cells in the stratum basale and extends into the dermis to produce an open ulcer. Surgical removal or radiation therapy cures this type of cancer.
p 109
Squamous cell carcinoma
Cells immediately superficial to the stratum basale which normally undergo little or no cell division, however the cells continue to divide as they produce keratin.
p 109
Malignant melanoma
A rare form of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes, usually in preexisting mole. A mole is an aggregation or "nest" of melanocytes. Unless treated in early stages it is often fatal.
p 109