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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
Covers the outer layer of skin, the internal surfaces, lining the cavities of the body, and forms most glands. Consist almost entirely of cells with very little extracellular material between them. Usual contains a free surface, which is not in contact with other cells, and a basement membrane which is acts as a barrier while connecting the epithelial tissue to underlying tissues.
p 73
Epithelial is classified according to what?
The number of cell layers and the shape of the cells.
p 73
Simple squamous epithelium
A single layer of thin, flat cells. Often found where diffusion and filtration take place.

Ex Alveoli where oxygen is let in and carbon dioxide is release out.
p 73
Simple cuboidal epithelium
A single layer of cube like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion.
p 74
Simple columnar epithelium
A single layer of tall thin cells, which contain organelles, allowing them to perform complex functions. Functions include movement of particles, secretion, and absorption.
p 74
Several or more than one layers of cells.
p 77
What is the function of cell layers and shape in epithelium?
Determines the specific function the epithelium performs. Single layer, deal with movement. Stratified deals with protection. Flat and thin cells deal with diffusion or filtration. Large cells deal with absorption.
p 78
What is the function of free cell surfaces in epithelium?
The space can be smooth or can have microvilli or cilia. Smooth reduce friction, ex blood vessels have smooth free cell surface which allow less friction on blood cells. Microvilli increase cell surface area, involve in absorption. Cilia propel materials along the surface of cells.
p 79
What is the function of connections between cells in epithelium?
Regulates what material cross the epithelial layer. Allow intercellular communication.
p 79 and summary
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Simple epithelium that appears to have two or more cell layers.
Transitional epithelium
Stratified epithelium that can be greatly stretched.
A multicellular structure that secretes substances onto a surface, into a cavity, or into the blood.
p 80
exocrine glands
Glands with ducts, can be simple (no branches) or compound (many branches. The end of the duct can be tubular, are a saclike structure called acinus. Some compound glands have acini and tubules that secret substances.
p 80
Endocrine glands
Glands that have no ducts and empty their secretions into the blood. Secretions which are called hormones, are carried by the blood to other parts of the body.
p 80-81
Connective tissue
Usually characterized by large amounts of extracellular material that separate cells from one another. Function to hold tissue together and provides a supporting framework for the body. The extracellular matrix has three major components (1) protein fibers, (2) ground consisting of nonfibrous protein and other molecules, and (3) fluid.
p 81
List the six major categories of connective tissue
1. Loose
2. Adipose
3. Dense
4. Cartilage
5. Bone
6. Blood
p 81 table 4.4
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
The "loose packing" material of the body, which fills the spaces between organs and holds them in place.
Adipose tissue
Connective tissue which functions to store energy. Adipose tissue also pads and protects parts of the body and acts as a thermal insulator.
Dense tissue
Connective tissue consists of matrix containing densely packed collagen fibers (tendons, ligaments, and dermis of the skin) or of matrix containing densely packed elastic fibers (elastic ligaments and in the walls of arteries.
Cartilage tissue
Gives strength, flexibility, support, allowing slight compression with the ability to spring back after being compress.
p 85
Describe the three types of cartilage tissue:
Hyaline cartilage covers the ends of bones, design to withstand repeated compression.
Fibrocartilage has more collogen which resist stretching but allow flexibility.
Elastic cartilage contains elastic fiber in addition to collagen and proteoglycans, traps large quantities of water, like the ears.
p 85
A hard connective tissue that consists of living cells and a mineralized matrix.
p 86
Has a liquid matrix and is found in blood vessels.
What are the three types of muscle tissue and their functions?
1. Skeletal-muscle attached to the skeleton which enables the body movement. Under voluntary movement.

2. Cardiac muscle-The muscle of the heart responsible for pumping blood. It is under involuntary control.

3. Smooth muscle-forms the walls of hollow organs (except the heart) and also is found in the skin and the eyes. Responsible for a number of functions from movement of food through the digestive tract to emptying the urinary system.
p 87
Nervous tissue
Consist of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Responsible for coordinating and controlling many bodily activities.
p 89
Responsible for conduction of action potentials. Much like the nucleus in other cells.
p 89
A thin sheet or layer of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity. Two main type are mucous and serous membrane.
p 89
Mucous membrane
Consist of various kinds of epithelium resting on a thick layer of loose connective tissue. Lines cavities that open to the outside of the body, such as digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive tracts. Function vary depending on location, and include, protection absorption, and secretion.
p 89
Serous membrane
Consist of simple squamous epithelium resting on a delicate layer of loose connective tissue. Lines the trunk cavities and the organs located within these cavities. Secretes serous fluid which covers the surface of the membranes. Provide lubrication, prevents damage from abrasion when cavities rub against one another.
p 89-90
Functions to isolate and destroy harmful agents, produces five symptoms: redness, heat, swelling, pain, and disturbance of function.
Tissue repair
Labile cells divide and can undergo regeneration.

Stable cells do not ordinarily divide but can regenerate if necessary.

Permanent cells have little or no ability to divide.
p 96
What is the age-related change that occur in cells and in extracellular matrix?
Cells divided more slowly. Extracellular matrix containing collagen and elastic fibers become less flexible and less elastic. Skin wrinkles, elasticing in arteries is reduced and bones break much easier.