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25 Cards in this Set

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Who is Alfred Wegener?
German meteorologist, came up with Pangaea.
Pangaea
all the continents fit together.
Gondwanaland
found by Edward Suess, large supercontinent that implied had existed, bottom of pangaea
Lautsia
top of pangaea
Evidence for Continental Drift
-match of Continental outlines -continuity of moutain belts and other geological formations across continent boundries -similar fossils of separate continents -glacial deposits and other paleoclimate indicators inconsistent with current continent location
What kind of fossils were found for evidence of continental drift?
Fossils of the upper paleozoic fern glossopteris
why was his idea rejected?
the fit was not perfect, the correlation of rock units was weak, the tillites were not glacial deposits, the northern hemisphere coals were not tropical, errors int the calculated motion of Greenland presented by Wegener
Crust
the outer skin, very thin, divided into oceanic and continental crust, 25-70 miles thick
mantle
thickest layer, solid, asthenosphere
Core
iron-nickel alloy, divided into the inner and outer core, the outer core is liquid which generates the Eath's magnetic field, the inner core behaves like a solid due to the increased pressure
Evidence of plate tectonics
paleomagnetism, magnetic reversals, earthquake and Volcano Distribution Pattern
Magnetic Reversals
Zebra stripped pattern of normal and reversed polarity in ocean floor, parallel to the ocean ridge, both sides of the ridge are of equal size and polarity, material furthest away is older in age, gave rise to sea-floor spreading
Earthquake and Volcano Distribution Pattern
deep earthquakes were shown to be inland a little from the trenches while shallow earthquakes were near the trenches. Volcanoes formed closer to the deep earthquakes.
Paleomagnetism
magnetite of Greenland basalts were not pointing to the present poles
Lithospheric Plates
Eurasian, indo-Australian, Pacific (ring of fire), North American, South American, Antarctic, African,
Divergent Plate Boundries
moving apart, can produce a rift valley, produce earthquakes and rifts Ex:african rift valleys
Convergent
come together in a collision, oceanic crust-oceanic, oceanic-continental, continental-continental produce volcanoes Ex:Japan
Transform
plates grind past each other Ex: San Andreas Fault of California
Subduction
oceanic crust subducts under another crust and along rifts, deep ocean trenches develop
Hot Spot
like a blow torch within the mantle which melts through the crust, plate is moving so teh older volcanoes are no longer active b/c plate is not over hot spot
Convection
mechanism for plate movement
What is a Volcanoes
a weak spot in the crust where magma comes to the surface
What is a volcano made of
magma, a molten mixture of rock forming substances, gases, and water vapor
magma on the surface is called
lava
Where are volcanos found?
ring of fire