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28 Cards in this Set

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Parts of a volcano
crater- bowl shaped area around central opening, lava-molten rock that flows from the vent above earth's surface,magma- molten rock below the earths surface, pipe-long tube through which magma moves, vent-the opening which molten rock and gas leave the volcano
Why does magma rise
b/c liquid magma is less dense than the surronding solid material
What factors determine if a volcano will erupt?
amount of gas dissolved in the magma, viscosity (resistance of magma), Magma temp (hotter it is the more fluid it is), silica content (the more the thicker it is)
3 Stages of a volcano
dormant- sleeping expected to become active in the future
Extinct- dead, not erupted for thousands of years
3 types of volcano
sheild, cinder cone, and composite
Sheild Volcano
thin layers of lava pour out gradually and build up a wide, gently sloping mt Ex:Mauna Loa
Cinder Cone
produce ash, cinders, and bombs, steep cone shpaed hill Ex:Paricutin
Composite Volcano
tall mountains, alternating ash and cinder and bombs
What is an earthquake?
the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy.
the source where enery radiates in all directions
What are Earthquakes associated with?
faults, explained by plate tectonics
Body waves
primary waves, secondary waves
push-pull waves they can travel through all mediums, they arrive first
right angle waves, they can travel through solids, they arrive second
Surface Wave
like ocean swells, they have an up and down motion and a side-to-side motion, produce the most damage, they arrive last
the location on the surface directly above the focus
2 ways to measure a earthquake
Mercalli Intensity Scale, Richter Scale
seismic sea waves, produced by an earthquake
law of superposition
in a undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks the oldest rock is on the bottom, and the youngest rock is on top
Principle of Original Horizontality
the layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position. if the layers are flat they have not been disturbed, and have their original horizontality
Prinicple of Cross-Cutting relationships
when a fault cuts through or a magma intrudes and crystallizes we can assume that the fault or the intrusion is younger than the rocks it intruded into
gap in the geogical record, disconformity-erosional
What are fossils?
the remains or traces of prehistoric life, important time indicators
Principle of Fossil Succession
fossil organisms suceed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content
What is a fossil index
widespread geographically and are limited to a short span of geologic time
radiometric dating
absolute dating
mostly algee and microfossils
3 Eras
paleozoic-mostly invertebrates, mesozoic- mostly dinosaurs, cenozoic- mostly mammals