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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where does energy come from to feed a disaster?
-Visitors from outer space(impacts, rotation, revolution)
-Internal enegry
-The Sun
What is gravity?
Energy changes forms. Attraction between objects. Cannot be modified.
Where does internal energy come from?
Gravity, radioactive decay
Planet formation caused...
tremendous quantities of heat
Heat energy came from...
-Impact energy
-Gravitational energy
-Decay of radioactive elements
Where does energy from the sun go?
30% is reflected back
47% is absorbed as heat by the air, sea, land
23% evaporates water
What are different amounts of radiation called?
How is the rock cycle involved?
Destruction-water cycyle wit the Sun's energy is weathering the rock
What are the layers of the earth?
inner core, outer core, mantle, asthenosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere
What is Pangaea?
when all the plates were connected
How is the age of the Earth found?
radiometric dating/ radioactive decay
What are hot spots? Where are they found?
Areas that produce magma to create islands. hawaii, center of Pacific plate
Where are most earthquakes located?
along plate boundaries
List boundaries and examples...

(transform) new seas, rift valleys

Transform~ going opposite ways
What is triple junction?
What kind of boundary is associated with it?
where 3 plate edges touch, divergent boundaries
Name prominent transform boundary locations...
Alpine fault, New Zealand
San Andreas, California
North Anatolian, Turkey
How are earthquakes produced?
the earth shakes due to sudden earth movements. Caused by volcanic activity, meteorite impacts, undersea landslides, explosions of nuclear bombs, mostly by movement along faults
What is an epicenter?
location on the surface directly above the focus
What is a hypocenter/focus?
the place within Earth where earthquake waves originate
List the types of faults...
dip slip-vertical movement, pushing or pulling force

strike slip- horizontal movement
right handed/dextrial
left handed/sinistral

transform-special horizontal movement, sides of plates slide past
Where is the hangingwall and footwall located?
hangingwall- about head

footwall- beneath feet
In a normal fault, the hangingwall moves down to create...
zone of extension
In a normal fault, the hangingwall moves up to create...
zone of omission
In reverse faults, the hangingwall moves up to create...
zone of repitition
What do extensional forces normally cause?

zone of omission

zone of repetition
What is seismology?
the study of earthquakes
How do we measure earthquakes?
Body waves? what medium do they go through, how fast?
P-waves-fastest, travel thru any medium

S-waves-reach recording second, only travel thru solids
Surface waves, what medium do they go through, how fast?
rayleigh-long, slow-elliptical motion, travel thru ground, water

love-long, slow- side to side, travel thru ground
which waves produce the most damage?
Surface waves
How do you locate an earthquake?
find focus and the epicenter is above on surface
Where do earthquakes occur in the subducting plate and how intense are they?
they occur in the shallow depth and are the biggest disasters
What are the different scales to measure earthquakes?
Mercalli-based on intensity

Richter-based on amplitude

Moment magnitude-closely estimates size of very large earthquakes
Where are the the largest earthquakes found?
pacific plate
Which plates are subducting to form earthquakes on the west coast of NA?
Pacific plate is subducting under the North American plate
What is the seismic gap method?
Where there hasnt been an earthquake in a while in a specific area, there will be one
Why was there so much damage in the 1985 Mexico City earthquake?
buildings were not stable
Which plate is subducting and responsible for earthquake?
What is the transform fault that is responsible for the San Francisco, 1906, Loma Prieta(world series)....
San Andreas
What is liquifaction?
when the land that the houses are built on are not sturdy
What are the New England earthquakes possibly caused by?
St. lawrence river
Why is the Eastern US earthquake ground motion covering such a large area?
faults that bound former rift valleys, they may be failing due to current stresses