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29 Cards in this Set

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Q: What are phytoplankton most known for?
A: Photosynthesis & being the incredibly important to the stability of the environment
Q: Where do marine plankton drift in?
A: The pelagic zone
Q: What is the swimming ability for plankton?
A: Cannot swim against ocean currents. However, can control vertical position.
Q: What is the average size (scope-wise) of plankton?
A: Microscopic
Q: What are nekton?
A: Organisms that swim expertly in the pelagic zone
H: Could give Michael Phelps a run for his money…
Q: Where is the benthic zone and what kind of organisms live there?
A: It is located at the seafloor, and benthos (benthic organisms) live there.
H: In terms of ‘kind’, looking for a specific type/name
Q: What is the big difference between holoplankton and meroplankton?
A: Organisms that are planktonic for their entire life cycle while meroplankton are planktonic for only a part of their life cycle (usually the larval stage).
H: Planktonic
Q: The majority of benthic organisms have what kind of larval stage and why?
A: - Meroplankton stage; Enables them to spread out over wide areas quickly on ocean currents.
Q: Organisms that are nekton as adults are usually…
A: Plankton early in life
Q: The biotic community is made up of 3 types of organisms:
A: Producers, Consumers, Decomposers
H: General food chain knowledge
Q: Producers are also known as what for what reason?
A: Autotrophs that produce their complex organic compounds from (1) simple inorganic compounds and (2) an external source of energy from the physical environment
Q: Consumers are also known as what for what reason?
A: Heterotrophs that feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs for energy & compounds used for growth.
Q: Decomposers are also known as what for what reason?
A: Saprotrophs are heterotrophs that obtain energy from wastes and dead organisms and return nutrients to the physical environment.
Q: Plankton are divided into three trophic groups:
A: Autotrophic phytoplankton, heterotrophic zooplankton, and bacterioplankton (planktonic bacteria)
H: Similar in nature to the biotic community
Q: What is the biotic division of bacterioplankton?
A: Most are autotrophic and some are saprotrophic.
Q: What is closer to reality, a food web or a food chain and why?
A: Food web because food chain is too simplistic
Q: What is the basic structure for the food web in trophic levels?
A: Primary producers -> Primary consumers - > Second-level consumers -> …5th-level (usual end)
H: Trophic pyramid
Q: What is the term for the rate of creation of organic matter from inorganic materials by photosynthesis?
A: Primary Productivity
Q: What’s the chemical formula for photosynthesis?
A: 6H2O + 6CO2 + sunlight -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
H: Opposite (in a sense) of respiration
Q: What’s the chemical formula for respiration?
A: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2 + metabolic energy
H: Opposite (in a sense) of photosynthesis
Q: What are 2 limiting factors affecting phytoplankton growth?
A: Availability of Sunlight, Availability of Nutrients
Q: Where is the pelagic zone?
A: Water that is not near the bottom of a body of water
H: Technically, right above the benthic zone
Q: What is the photic zone?
A: The well-lit region of the ocean where photosynthesis occurs
Q: What is the euphotic zone?
A: Primary production occurs here. 90% of marine life lives here.
Q: What is the disphotic zone?
A: This is the “twilight layer” between the photic and aphotic zones. The ‘critical depth’ separates this zone from the euphotic zone and is where photosynthesis production exactly matches respiration production.
Q: What is the aphotic zone?
A: There is <1% of total sunlight penetration here.
Q: What are the 4 most common examples of phytoplankton?
A: Coccoid cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores
Q: What are the 4 most common examples of zooplankton?
A: Copepods, Krill, Radiolarians, Foraminiferans
Q: What is the formula for Net Primary Productivity?
A: Gross Primary Productivity (Photosynthesis Production) - RespirationProduction