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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Black Walnut
species, dangerous part, toxin, action, signs, test
Juglans nigra
black walnut shavings used as bedding; unknown toxin and action, signs: laminitis and pitting edema of extremities 12-24 hrs post-exp; test for juglone for exposure
Species and endophyte
toxin, MOA, signs, dx, prevention
Festuca sp infested w/ Neotyphodium coenophialum
Ergopeptide alkaloids (ergovaline)
Vasoconstriction, prolactin antagonism
Horses signs: prolonged gestation, abortion, thick placenta, decr milk,
Dx: Hx, ID of endophyte in GREEN grass
Prev: endophyte-free fescue (unlikely), dilute w/ other forage
Black Locust
Dangerous part
eating bark/leaves (unknown for sure)
Somnolence, followed by extreme hyperexcitability
species, dangerous part, toxin, action, signs, dx
Taxus sp; all parts except fruit dangerous; taxines; depresses conduction of depol thru heart; sudden death, bradycardia, dyspnea, tremors; dx by hx of consumption, presence of leaves in stomach, taxine in stomach
Red Maple
species, spp affected, dangerous part, toxin, action, signs, dx
Acer rubrum; horses, alpacas; wilted leaves; unknown toxin (poss gallic acid, pyrogallol); oxidative hemolysis - methemoglobinemia and heinz body formation; icterus, tachycardia, polypnea, cyanosis, red urine, brown discoloration of blood; dx by hx of ingestion, CS's (PM: anemia, heinz bodies, incr AST, icterus, hepatic degen), but leaves usu not in stomach at TOD
species, spp affected, dangerous part, toxin, MOA, signs, dx
Senecio; horses and cows; all parts dangerous; pyrrolizidine alkaloid; hepatic degeneration leading to cirrhosis; rough hair coat, wt loss, depression, weak, anorexia, icterus, ascites, bleeding death (all signs w/ chronic form); Dx by hx of ingestion (up to 6 mo ago), high liver enzymes, characteristic liver necrosis, megalocytosis, cirrhosis
Wild Cherry
Species, toxin, effect
Prunus sp; cyanide in wilting leaves; rapid death (no cases in last 5 yrs)
St. Johnswort
species, species affected, dangerous parts, signs, dx
Hypericum perforatum; livestock; any part containing hypericin (primary photosensitizer); 1-5 d post-ingestion light colored skin becomes reddened, swollen, cracking, sloughing; dx by hx, cs's
White Snakeroot
species, where found, species affected and when, toxin, dangerous part, MOA, Dx
Eupatorium rugosum; shady areas/wooded in IN; horses, cattle, sheep, goats in fall/winter - pasture eaten down/dry - poss in hay; tremetone/tremetol; all of plant (not removed by drying into hay); Myonecrosis; Hx, plant in stomach, high CK, cardiac muscle necrosis, mild sk musc necrosis
Signs of white snakeroot poisoning
All animals: weak, tremors, depression, collapse, coma, death anywhere from days to 2 wks post-ing
Cattle: also have muscle fasciculations, no signs if nursing a calf (passes thru milk)
Horses: also sluggish, ataxic, throat paralysis, myocardial degen
species, species affected, dangerous part, signs, dx
Hordeum jubatum; livestock, dogs; awn (seed head); salivation; dx by hx, oral ulcers, awns in nares, ears, lungs
dz name, where grows, signs, prevention
Moldy Corn Dz; fungus on damaged corn produces it; CNS signs, weakness, death; use high quality corn
MOA, other info
grow on moldy corn; severe hepatic damage wks to mo after ingestion; difficult to dx (signs so long after exposure)
Most common toxicoses in horses
Foxtail, fescue, black walnut, fumonisin periodically