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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name four common equine dzs of the cornea
1.stromal keratomalocia
2.stromal abscesses
3.eosinophilic keratitis
4.calcific band keratopathy
punctate or dentritic ulcers of the cornea indicate what
viral keratitis
treat with topical antivirals and oral lysine
what is the most common primary cause of corneal ulceration
how fast should simple corneal ulcers heal?
within a few days
what are the three main causes of complicated corneal ulcers?
1.lid or lash problems
2.tear flim abnormalities
3.corneal infection:
stromal abscesses
stromal keratomalacia
what is the pathophysiology of stromal keratomalacia
1.organisms produce MMPs
2.neutrophils produce proteolytic enzymes
3.keratocytes produce proteinases and proteinases inhibitors as part of normal healing
what bacterium can melt a cornea in no time flat
what two diagnostics should be done for corneal ulcers
1.corneal culture
2.corneal cytology
what is the perfered motor block for the eye?
what is the perferd senosor block (besides topical anesthetic)
4 point: frontal, infratrochlear,zygomatic,lacrimal
what are the therapy goals for infectious keratitis?
1.sterlize the cornea
2.stop or prevent corneal melting
3.prevent or treat uveitis
4.decrease pain
what kind of treatment scedule do you need to treat the infection in infectious keratitis
TID - QID to treat very one to two hours need subpalperbral lavage system
what are the four most common topical antibiotics used to sterilize the cornea
2.tripple ab
how do you over come antibiotic resistance to topical antibiotics
increase concentration by adding injectable soluntion
what antifungals can you use in the eye and what are the pros/cons of each
1.natamycin 5%:comes in an opthalmic sln, but is poor at pentrating the epi
2.miconazole 1% IV sln: penetrates cornea better than natamycin
3.itraconazole 1%in 30%DMSO:irritating
4.fluconazole .2%:can supplement with oral, penetrates well into eye and aqueous humor
what are 4 antiproteases treatments
1.serum or plasma q2h
2.EDTA .2% q2h
3.acetylcysteine 10% q4h
4.doxycycline .1%
treatments for uveitis control/pain control
when is a conjuctival graft needed
when ulcer depth is greater than 50%
when there is rapid progression of corneal melting
what is the treatment to reduce excessive corneal scarring
cyclosporine A
what are the causes of stromal abscesses
1.microtrauma that is sealed over
2.infectious outbreak
when can you stop ab treatment for a stromal ulcer
when completely vascularized
what is the clinical appearance of eosinophilic keratitis how do you diagnose it
corneal ulcer covered by raised, white necrotic plaque
may be multifocal
usually in young horses
diagnosis made by corneal cytology
how do azelastine hydrochloride and idoxamide work
topical mast cell stabilizers that prevent degranulation
what is the treatment for eosinophilic keratitis
topical steriods if ulceration is minimal, when chronic, or for recurrance
topical NSAIDs
topical mast cell stabilizers
systemic NSAIDS
superficial lamelllar keratectomy to remove plaque speeds heeling-don't use steriods if you do this
what are the two forms of ERU
1.classic- sctive inflammtion followed by minimal inflammation
2.insidious ERU- low grade inflammtion that is often not accompanied by obvious outward signs
with equine recurrent uvetitis which horse tend to get anterior uveitis and which tend to get posterior uveitis
posterior:warmbloods, draft breeds and european horses
pathology of acute ERU
neutrophilic inflammation
pathology of chronic ERU
lymphocytic nodule formation with multiple attacks
what histopathology is pathognomonic for ERU
hyaline membrane adjacent to posterior aspect of iris coupled with linear cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adjacent non-pigmented epithelial cells
what is the diagnostic work up for ERU
2.chem panel
3.conjunctival biopsy
4.serology for bacterial and viral agents