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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the route of ingesta
ileum (ileocecal valve)
cecum (cecocolic orifice)
right ventral colon (sternal flexure)
left ventral colon (pelvic flexure)
left dorsal colon (diaphragmatic flexure)
right dorsal colon
transverse colon
small colon
what is the first structure visualized when you open up a horse with a ventral midline incision
what is the lateral band of the cecum called
cecocolic fold
what does the cecocolic fold attach
cecum to lateral free band of right ventral colon
how many bands does the cecum have
which bands of the cecum have blood supply
lateral and medial bands
which band of the cecum is continous with the cecocolic fold
lateral band
which band of the cecum is continous with the ileoceclal fold
dorsal band
what is a another name for the gastrosplenic ligament
lesser omentum
does it matter if you touch the pancreas of the horse during surgery
surprisingly no
true or false, the iluem isnt very muscual
false it is, it has two layers of muscle
where does fermentation start in the intestines
the cecum and right ventral colon
what is on the left side of the abdomen
LVC and LDC :)
how can you exteriorize the LVC and the LDC
by grasping the pelvic flexure
is the pelvic flexure fixed
nope, the RDC and the RVC are
what are CS of colic
colic. kicking at belly, pawing, laying down, looking at sides, curling lip, playing in water, grinding teeth, refusing feed, change in attitude, decreased fecal output
what are signs of severe, acute colic
down and rolling, evidence the horse has rolled, breathing hard, sweating, abdominal distention (bloating)
what are CS of GI dz
abnormal feces (amount/ consistency)
wt. loss
how will you diagnotically evaluate the GIT
thorough PE
historical factors

minimun data base
U/A urinalysis
when doing a rectal exam what is important to do
restrain properly
can use a good man with a twitch
chemical restraint (alpha 2's, parasympatholytics)
wrap the tail
copious lubrication
what is a huge problem when doing rectal exams
rectal tearing!
what do you do when you cause a rectal tear in a horse
sedate the horse (AVOID ACEPROMAZINE)
caudal epidural (xylazine + lidocaine)
bare-armed rectal exam
systemic Abx + NSAIDs
prevent tear from getting worse (rectal tampon, purse string suture anus)
how do you improve survival rates of a horse with a rectal tear
refer EARLY
what does a grade I rectal tear involve
mucosa + submucoa
how do you treat a grade 1 rectal tear
medical management
pelleted diet-softened
monitor closely for signs of fever, LPS, dyschezia
where do rectal tears usually occur, dorsally or ventrally
what does a grade II rectal tear involve
muscularis only
how are you going to treat a grade II rectal tear
may not require treatment
can predispose to rectal impactions
which grade can a rectal tear II progess into
a IV
which layers does a grade III rectal tear involve
all layers except for serosa
how do you treat a grade III rectal tear
it is life-threatening
you need prompt therapy
IV abx (penicillin/gentocin/ metronidazole)
anti-endotoxemic tx
tetanus prophylaxis
rectal packing
what are two things you can do medically and 2 things you can do surgically to manage a grade III rectal tear
periotoneal paracentesis.
abdominal lavage
rectal liner
loop colostomy
what does a grade IV rectal tear involve
its life threatening
typically fatal due to overwhelming fecal contamination of abdomen
few reports of survival
what is normal peritoneal fluid in a horse
clear transudate fluid
straw to yellow color
TP <2.0 g/ dl
WBC < 5000
what does it mean if you have serosanguinous peritoneal fluid
bowel devitaliation, splenic puncture, SQ blood vessel
what does it mean if you have green fluid from your peritoneal fluid
bowel rupture
what does it mean if you have orange fluid from your perioteal fluid
what is another test you can run that will tell if you have septic or non-septic peritoneal fluid
peritoneal fluid vs. serum blood gas
< 50 points lower than that of serum bld glc
elevated lactate
very low pH
what is a contraindication of using laprascopy?
you have to use CO2 to distend the abomen, so watch for adverse signs
what can't you use to image the stomach?
radiography in lg horses (can use for small)
CT/ MRI you can't fit them into the machine
what is a great way to see into any horse stomach?
what is the relationship between mHz and how deep you can see in the abdomen
the lower the mHz, the deeper you can see into the abdomen
what cant you see with ultrasound
the small colon
where is the stomach located
left side
9-13 ICS
what is going to cause variable echogenicity in the horse stomach
where is the duodenum located in the abdomen
right side of the abdomen, ventral to caudal pole of right kidney, caudal to the liver
what is scintigraphy used for
mostly bones
how to you image the large colon and cecum, in which direction
from right to left body wall
when you take a biopsy, where are you going to take it from, how thick will it be and which procdure will you use
ventral midline celiotomy, full thickness and use laparoscopy
how do you get a mucosal biopsy of the stomach
via endoscopy
when do you perform adsorption tests
when there is chronic wt. loss
how do you perfom adsorption tests
fast the horse for 18-24 hours
administer 10% of d-xylose/ d-glucose
take blood samples
plot curve
peak "inverted v: b/t 60-120 min.
is gastric reflux normal in a horse
how do you know if your stomach tube is in the esophagus
watch the tube go down the esophagus
neg. pressure when you inhale on the tube
auscult gas bubbles when air is forced into the tube