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118 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is counterconditioning?
It is based on reciprocal inhibition which says 2 incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time.
What is aversive conditioning?
Positive punishment. Give a strong negative punishment to override a pleasurable behavior. Use with smoking, paraphilia
Is aversive conditioning effective?
In the short term, but long term effects are insignificant
What is systematic desensitization?
Gradually expose the patient to more and more of a stimulus while having the patient simultaneously implement relaxation techniques previously learned.
What is sensate focus? Who developed the concept?
Increase pleasure with massage and decrease anxiety with removal of the goal of intercourse. Sexual arousal acts as a counterconditioning response to performance anxiety. Masters and Johnson
How is Assertiveness training considered counter conditioning?
Use assertive response as counterconditioning response to anxiety.
What is classical extinction and flooding?
Involves presenting the CS without the US either over several trials or for an extended period of time to the point where the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the CR.
For whom is flooding more effective?
agoraphobia, OCD, specific phobias. Flooding with response prevention is more effective than systematic desensitization.
What is implosive therapy by Stampfl?
Combo of classical extinction in imagination and interpretation of psychosexual themes.
Primary reinforcement is different from secondary reinforcement how?
Primary reinforcement involves using reinforcers for everyone at all ages and in all cultures.
Secondary reinforcement involves using reinforcers that acquire value through experience or training (i.e., praise).
What is generalized conditioned response?
Using a reinforcer that can give access to other reinforcers ($$, tokens).
What is the Premack Principle?
Use a high frequency behavior to reinforce a low frequency behavior. E.g., tell a child they can't watch TV until they clean their rooms.
What is the difference between Differential Reinforcement of Other behaviors, Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behaviors, and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behaviors?
Nothing, they all involve combining extinction with reinforcement.
T/F... Positive punishment eliminates behavior.
False.. Positive punishment suppresses behavior. It does not eliminate it.
What is escape learning?
Negative reinforcement. Take away an aversive stimuli when a desired behavior is emitted.
What is avoidance learning?
Avoid the aversive stimuli by emitting a desired behavior 1st. Ex. pay our bills on time to prevent paying an extra fee or d/c of service.
A mother made her kid clean her bedroom and his own bedroom after the child failed to clean his bedroom by a particular deadline. What is this called?
There are three types of modeling in Social Learning Theory - Symbolic, Live In-vivo, and Participant... what are they?
Symbolic modeling - observing a model on a film
Live In-Vivo - observing a model in real life.
Participant modeling- model guides the person (this is very effective for kids with phobias)
What is the "dialectical" in Linehan's DBT?
The need for simultaneous "acceptance" and "change."
What are the 4 conditions pts receiving DBT need to agree to?
1. Work in tx for specific period and attend all sessions.
2. Decrease suicidal behavior
3. Work on tx interfering behaviors.
4. Attend skills training
What skills are taught in skills training of DBT?
Mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion modulation, and distress tolerance
What is the ABC model of Ellis' RET?
A= activating event
B = Belief
C = consequence
What are the major components of RET?
Direct instruction, persuasion, logical disputes. Convince pt of irrationality. The goal is change of philosophical system to effect emotion and behavior.
What is the DEF in RET?
Treatment focus:
D = disputing intervention
E = adopt effective philosophy
F = new feelings
What is the crux of Beck's Cognitive Therapy?
Hypothesis testing as a means of changing beliefs. ID negative cognitions, develop alternative and flexible schemas and rehearse new cognitions and behavior responses.
What is the Depression Triad according to Beck?
1. Negative view of self
2. Negative view of the world
3. Negative view of the future
What are some techniques used by Beck?
HW, Socratic questioning, thought logs, activity schedule, mastery of tasks to build confidence, and experiments that challenge assumptions
Meichendbaum's Cognitive Behavioral Modification therapy involves mainly two interventions... what are they?
Self-instructional therapy - set of procedures combining modeling and graduated practice. 5 steps.
Stress inoculation - inoculate a person with milder stressors to increase repertoire of coping when faced with severe stressors.
What are the five steps of self instructional therapy?
1. Therapist models task and verbalizes steps out loud.
2. Therapist verbalizes steps while patient performs task.
3. Patient verbalizes the steps whil performing the task.
4. Patient mouths the steps while performing task.
5. Patient silently performs task.
What are the three phases of stress inoculation?
1. Education and cognitive prep.
2. Coping skills acquisition
3. Application of skills in imagination or in-vivo.
What is the basic concept of Rehm's Self Control Model of Depression?
Depression and its concomitant low rate of behavior is the result of low self-evals, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment. Reinforcement can be self-generated.
What is Marlatt's Relapse Prevention model of substance abuse?
Addiction is an overlearned habit. Relapses are inevitable experiences.
According to Marlatt, what is the most common relapse triggers?
Negative emotional state. In treatment the goal is to develop other ways to cope.
Briefly describe the key features of the Id, Ego, and Superego?
ID - seat of reflexes, instincts and pleasure principle.
EGO - reality principle, executive control. Functions to satisfy ID impulses by using means that are acceptable to the Superego.
Superego - Conscience, moral code. Internalized parental and societal standards.
What are the primary and secondary processes of mental function?
Primary - dreams, hallucinations and other urgent attempts at tention reduction.
Secondary - thinking, speaking, etc. Ways to meet demands of reality by delaying gratification
When does neurotic anxiety occur?
When the urges of the id become too strong to be controlled by the ego and these impulses edge their way into consciousness, so the ego resorts to ego defense mechanisms.
What is repression and regression?
Repression - force disturbing impulses from consciousness (underlies all defense mech's)
Regression - retreat to behaviors of an earlier, less demanding safer stage.
What are projection and displacement?
Projection - seeing one's unconscious urges in other's behavior.
Displacement - transference of emotion from original object to some substitute.
What are reaction formation and intellectualization?
Rxn formation - behave in the opposite way from what one feels.
Intellectualization - distance self from emotins
What is rationalization and sublimation?
Rationalization - come up with self-satisfying yet incorrect reason for behavior
Sublimation - d/c energy from unconscious forbidden desire in socially acceptable way (healthy).
What is the goal in psychoanalytic tx?
Make the unconscious, conscious by bringing to light the id impulses and the efforts to repress those impulses with defense mech's.
Techniques of psychoanalytic tx include free associaiton, dream analysis, and transference/countertransference analysis. What are 4 steps of free association?
1. Clarification
2. Confrontation
3. Interpretation
4. Working through
How are transference and countertransference helpful?
Transference is viewed as resistance and countertransference is seen as a way to get to the transference.
Hartman was said to be the "father of Ego Psychology". What is ego psychology?
People are driven by thinking and feeling and ego and id are parallel to each other rather than ego arising from id.
Hartman also coined the term "conflict free sphere" for what?
Those ego functions that occur outside of conflict like learning, perception, locomotion.
Who said the ego has inherent ability to reconcile drive conficts with demands of reality. this person also started to use psychoanalytic therapy with kids.
Anna Freud
Who said development occurs in response to social crises. He also said the ego matures in epigenetic sequence, which means what?
Erikson. The structure and sequence of development is genetic however the environment must provide specific stimulation.
Did Erikson believe in the id, ego, and superego?
Yes. He said human behavior was an interaction b/n ego, superego, and social world.
Melanie Klein talked about "splitting" - what is this?
When good and bad objects are experienced and love and aggression are split b/n them.
DW Winnicott described the transitional object, which is what?
A link b/n developing kids and mom (e.g., doll, blanket)
Margaret Mahler described the process of separation and individuation... what are the 6 stages?
1. 1st mo "Infantile Autism" - baby is unaware of outside world.
2. Symbiosis (2-4 mos) - baby feels she/he and mom are one.
3. Differentiation (5-10 mos) - child can distinguish b/n self and other objects.
4. Practicing (10-16 mos) - child discovers he/she has th eability to separate physically from mom (separation anxiety begins)
5. Rapprochement(16-24 mos) - increased need for mom to share the child's new skills and experiences.
6. Object constancy (2-3 years)
What is separation and individuation?
Separation - process of becoming a discrete physical entity with physical distance.
Individuation - the process of becoming a functioning person, which involves maturation of independent ego functions.
Who developed "self-psychology" and what is the basic premise?
Kohut. Focus on development of self that grows in interactions b/n infant and caregiver. Primitive narcissism.
Sullivan, Horney, and Fromm are all Neo-Freudians... what does that mean?
Focus on the impact of social and cultural factors in determining personality. Pathology results from faulty learning and involves a characterological maladaptive style of interacting with environment.
Sullivan said that personality only exists in an emotional exchange b/n people. He described 3 modes...what are they?
1. prototaxic (birth - 7mos.)- a stream of unrelated sensory experiences.
2. parataxic (8-11mos) - sequential sensations and the dominance of temporal sequence serves as the only conception of causality.
3. Syntaxic (12 mos-2yrs) - causal sensation, logical and analytical thinking and ability to predict cause from knowledge of their efforts.
Horney described 3 neurotic trends that arise from basic anxiety. These trends are an effort to move toward safety, familiarity, and security.
1. move compliantly to others.
2. move aggressively against others.
3. move detachedly aware from others.
Who said the "being" mode is more healthy than the "having" mode and that freedom is frightening?
Erich Fromm
Who theorized that people strive for superiority and competence. This person also believed that people are motivated by social urges.
What did Adler say motivates mastery or neurosis?
Feelings of inferiority that every child has.
What did Adler mean by "Lifestyle?"
The set of attitudes, aspirations/goals, and behaviors that people form in an effort to overcome feelings of inferiority.
What is meant by "teleological view?"
Behavior is influenced most by future goals.
According to Jung, what is the psyche?
conscious ego ples personal unconcsious, plus collective unconscious
According to Jung, what is neurosis?
The struggle of people to free themselves from interference of the archetypes with progress to personality integration and fulfillment of potential. Striving for psychological maturity (i.e., individuation)
What did Jung say about transference?
It is the projection of personal and/or collective unconscious.
Humanists are said to have a phenomenological approach, which means what?
Therapist's goal is to enter the patient's subjective world.
T/F, Humanists believe that people naturally move in the direction of actualization or growth.
According to Rogers, what causes pathology?
Incongruence b/n true self and the self displayed.
What three qualities do therapists need to exhibit for therapy to promote growth?
Empathy, warmth (unconditional positive regard), and genuineness
What is the Gestalt focus of treatment (Perls)?
Increase self-awareness of whole personality by discovering aspects of blocked from awareness so that they can achieve integration (wholeness).
How are the resistances conceptualized?
These resistances are ways that people reduce contact with the environment/others. Boundary disturbances. They aid in blocking awareness.
What are introjection and projection>?
Introjection: take info in whole.
Projection: project feelings on others.
What are retroflection and confluence?
Retroflection: turn back on self what they would like to do to others.
Confluence: lack of differentiation b/n self and other
What are two key features of Glasser's Reality Therapy?
Responsibility and "Control theory" meaning we create an inner world that satisfies our needs, which does not necessarily reflect the real world.
What is the goal of Reality Therapy treatment?
Help the person perceive the consequences of possible courses of action and decide on realistic solutions or goals.
What is meant by "transactions" in Berne's Transactional Analysis?
They are the interactions b/n 2 people's ego states (parent, child, adult). They can be overt (social) or covert (underlying message).
What are the "games" and "strokes" of Transactional Analysis?
Games: orderly series of ulterior transactions.
Strokes: recognition of another person. Can be + or -
What are the "life scripts" and the "injunctions" in TA.
Lifescripts: patterns that developed and dictate one's life.
Injunctions: messages given to the child be parents out of their own pain that tells the child what they need to do to get recognized.
What can hypnosis be used to treat? What is it not recommended for?
Chronic pain, asthma, substance use, and conversion d/o's. Paranoids and OCD's are not good candidates.
What kind of memories does hypnosis bring up?
A higher proportion of false memories than true memories.
What is a key feature of Ericksonian hypnotherapy?
It involves techniques that rely on psycholinguistic nuances as well as relaxation and focus during trance.
What are the 4 types of biofeedback and what is each one good for?
Thermal biofeedback: measures peripheral skin temp - Migrain HA's and Reynaud's dz.
Electromyography (EMG): measures surface muscle tension (used with tension HA's, TMJ, and back pain).
Electroencephalography (EEG): measures brain waves (used with hyperactivity, sz d/o
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR): measures skin conductance (sweat: used with GAD, HTN)
What are some key features of Feminist Therapy?
Promotes independence and autonomy. They view sexism as the underlying cause of problems - don't focus on pathology (humanists are like this too). They strive for egalitarian relationship and make self-disclosing statements (so do Yalom grp therapists). They also advocate for socio-political change.
What are the 5 personality traits outlined by Costa and McCrae's Big 5 Model?
Oppenness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
What are the two deviant marital relations as defined by Lidz's Psychodynamic Family therapy?
1. Marital schism - severe, chronic discord and disequilibrium.
2. Marital skew - the relationship is skewed to meeting the needs of one member at the expense of the other.
In both types, there is a failure to develop a reciprocally rewarding parental coalition.
What is role reciprocity?
Common understanding and acceptance of each other's roles, goals, and values.
What is key concept in Psychodynamic Family Therapy?
Free family members from unconscious patterns of anxiety and projection rooted in past. Help families clarify communication and honestly admit feelings.
From an object relations' pespective, how are problems caused within families?
Members unconsciously project unwanted elements of selves onto others in family, which leads to family members being dissatisfied and trying to change one another.
Minuchin's structural family therapy is a single, interrelated system which can be assessed along a variety of dimensions... what are they?
hierarchy of power, clarity and firmness of boundaries, alliances, and splits.
Minuchin said boundary problems result in rigid triangles. THere are 3 types... what are they?
Triangulation - child is caught in middle.
Detouring - scapegoat the child by blaming or making them sick.
Stable coalition - one parent unites with child against other parent.
When a therapist attempts to understand family dynamics by adopting their style of interaction, what is this called?
The communications family therapists (Satir, Weaklund, Watzlawick, Bateson, Jackson, and Haley) coined the term "double bind" - what does it mean?
Verbal, non-verbal, and recognition messages are sent that let the other person know that no matter what course of action they take, they are wrong.
"Prescribing the symptom," is what kind of intervention?
Paradoxical intervention or paradoxical intention.
Haley's strategic family therapy borrows from what other family therapies?
Minuchin's structural therapy and the communication style of family therapy.
What is the focus of strategic family therapy?
Interrupting the rigid feedback cycle and defining clearer hierarchy. Increase repertoire of coping skills.
Milan's Systemic therapy has two main concepts called "circular questioning" and "prescription of rituals" - what are they?
Circular questioning - is aims at hypothesis formation while introducing information to families.
Prescription of rituals: purpose is to alter the family's direction from its current course.
According to Bowen's family therapy theory, what makes a healthy familY?
Clearly differentiated family members. Differentiation, which is the ability to be one's true self in the face of familial or other pressures is the goal of therapy.
T or F: Bowen would begin working first with the least psychologically minded individual in the family.
Fals - it is actually the opposite of this.
Bowen's Multigenerational transmission process says that pathology in the family is repeated through the generations. This idea gave way to what technique/tool?
The Genogram (developed by Bowen).
What are Yalom's 12 factors for group?
Insight, instillation of hope, universality, imparting info, altruism, corrective recapitulation of primary family, develop social skills, imitative behaviors, interpersonal learning, cohesiveness, catharsis, existential factors.
In individual therapy, the most critical factor is therapis empathy, what is it in groups?
What are the three stages like?
1. Hesitatnt orienting to each other and group.
2. Conflict and attempts at dominance.
3. Closeness, intimacy, cohesion.
How are the goals of short term therapy and crisis intervention different?
In short term therapy, the goal is improved functioning in a short period of time. In crisis intervention, the goal is return to normal functioning quickly.
There are 4 types of community interventions... client-centered case consult, consultee-centered case consult, consultee-centered admin consult, and program-centered admin consult... define each of these.
Client-cntred case - intervention helps 1 consultee with 1 client.
Consultee-ctrd case - intervention helps 1 consultee with multiple clients.
Consultee-ctrd Admin - intervention focused on 1 consultee and leads to program changes.
Progran-ctrd admin - intervention focus on a group to affect program changes.
Describe the 3 levels of prevention.
Primary - most widespread and removed - truly prevent problem.
Secondary - stop mild d/o from becoming serious and/or chronic (ex. screening efforts).
Tertiary - reduce residual effects of chronic problem or minimize further negative consequences. (ex. PSRC, voc rehab).
What kids are at greatest risk of abuse?
Those perceived as developmentally slow, different, and hard to discipline. Hyperactive. Low SES, socially isolated homes.
Perpetrators of abuse are likely to be which of the following (can be more than one)
1. Female
2. Living in the home.
3. Live in 2-parent homes
4. Former victims of child abuse
5. Be substance abusers.
6. Have a DSM diagnosis.
1-5 are true. "6" is false... abusers generally do not meet criteria for a mental health diagnosis (except sub abuse)
T or F. The only consistent way to stop spousal abuse is arresting the perpetrator.
What is the difference between expressive vs. instrumental abuse?
Expressive - results as a way to manage emotions.
Instrumental - a way to exert control over somoene
True or False:
Many rapists experience sexual dysfunction during rape/
WHat is involved in 50% of rapes?
True or false:
Most rapes are sponaneous and occur as a result of poor impulse control.
False... most rapes are premeditated.
How long does it take kids to recover from divorce?
3-5 years, but up to 1/3 have lasting trauma.
What are the gender differences in how children respond to parents' divorcing and remarrying?
Initially, girls adjust better than boys to divorce, but boys respond better to having step-fathers.
What did Eysenck (1952) find in the first meta-analysis of therapy outcomes?
2/3 of all neurotics improved over a 2-year period whether they received treatment or not.
What did Smith, Glass, and Miller (1980) find in their meta-analysis?
AVG effect size of .85 - individuals who had psychological treatment were better off than 80% of those who did not.
What were some of the main findings of the Consumer Reports article in 1995?
Long term therapy is better than short, therapy alone did not differ much from therapy plus meds, no specific modality did better than others, no differences b/n psychologists and social workers, but both were better than MFT's.
What is utilization review?
Focus on the costs and conserving resources.
Quality assurance and utilization review are related to risk management, which is about what?
It has to do with taking steps to decrease inappropriate practices.