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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
WHo are the two classical conditioning theorists?
Pavlov (dogs) and Watson (Albert)
What does Pavlov call the stimuli and response links? What are the inborn/automatic stimulus response links called?
Reflexes. Unconditioned, so US => UR
In what order must the NS and US occur to make the NS a CS?
The NS must precede the US repeatedly. The subject will eventually see the US as contingent upon the NS and the UR will begin to occur in response to the NS, making it the CS.
Does the CS produce a weaker, stronger, or equivalent response than the US?
What is standard pairing (trace conditioning)?
The CS precedes the US by a short interval and maybe overlaps into the presentation of the US.
What is delay conditioning?
The CS precedes the US by a significant period and stops right before the US (ex. dog hears can opener and begins to salivate).
What is temporal conditioning?
The US is presented repeatedly at a consistent time interval and eventually time itself acts as the CS. EX. Humans get hungry at the same time for lunch every day.
What is stimulous conditiong?
The NS and the US completely overlap. This actually does not lead to learning because the US is never perceived as contingent upon the NS.
What is backward conditioning?
The US precedes the NS and this also does not lead to learning because the US is not ever perceived to be contingent upon the NS.
When a subject generalizes from a CS to other types of stimuli and exchibits the same CR in response to these other stimuli, this is called what?
Stimulus generalization.
Ex. Little Albert became scared of other little white fuzzy things besides the rabbit.
When a CS is paired with a NS until it becomes another CS2 and then CS2 is paired with another NS until it becomes CS3, this is called what?
Higher order conditioning.
Ex. Dogs salivate with the bell and that gets paired with a light, and dogs then salivate after the light is introduced. The highest you can go is 3rd level.
How would you classically extinguish a behavior?
Repeatedly present the CS with the US and eventually the CR will cease to occur following the CS.
What is spontaneous recovery?
During extinction, following a rest, a CR will briefly reappear. Ex. We ring the doorbell one hundred times and Petey stops barking in response to it for that training situation. The next day we ring the doorbell, and he barks again (spontaneous recovery) but after more training (extinction) he stops doing it. Over time the rate of spontaneous recovery lessens.
A dog is trained to sit when he hears a 100Hz tone. When he hears the same tone in 500Hz, he does not sit. What is this referred to as?
Stimulus discrimination. THe subject learns to discriminate between two very similar stimuli.
What is pseudoconditioning?
The NS is not deliberatly paired with a US. Ex. dog salivates when Pavlov turns the light on in the lab.
What is the term for becoming less responsive and accustomed to US after repeated exposures to the point where the US no longer eliciting the UR?
What is another name for Instrumental Conditioning? And who can be attributed to this?
Operant Conditioning. Thorndike and Skinner.
What does Thorndike's Law of Effect state...
Behaviors are intitailly emitted in randon, trial and error fashion. Those random behaviors followed by pleasurable rewards become stronger and more frequent and those behaviors followed by unpleasant punishers become weaker and less frequent. He later retracted the part about the punishers.
What is the difference between reinforcer and punisher?
Reinforcer = makes behavior more likely to occur in response to that stimuli in the future.
Punisher = decreases the likelihood of behavior occuring again in response to that stimuli.
What is the difference between a negative and positive reinforcer/punisher?
Negative = remove something
Positive = add something
Acquisition phase is what?
The training period.
What occurs during extinction?
Reinforcement is witheld. Ex. Time out
What is satiation?
Reinforcer loses its value secondary to overuse.
What is thinning?
Decreasing frequency of reinforcement.
What is the difference between interval and ratio in terms of types of intermittent reinforcement?
Interval - reinforce at the end of a certain specified amount of time if the behavior occured during that interval.
Ratio - reinforce after a given number of target behaviors.
What are Fixed and Variable in terms of intermitten reinforcement?
Fixed - pre determine the interval or ratio size and hold it during the acquisition period.
Variable - the interval and ratio change during the acquisition period.
Which type of intermittent reinforcement schedule is most resistant to extinction?
Variable ratio
Which type of reinforcement schedule leads to fastest learning of behavior?
Continuous reinforcement
When a behavior is accidentally reinforced or non-contingently reinforced, the resulting behavior is called what...
Superstitious behavior.
When Petey listens to my command to sit when I am holding a treat, but does not listen to my command to sit when I am not holding a treat, this is known as what?
Discriminative learning. A stimulus that signals reinforcement (treat) will occur leads to the behavior, but the subject learns that when that signal is not present, reinforcement will likely not occur and therefore is less likely to exhibit the target behavior.
What is the difference between stimulus generalization and response generalization?
In stimulus generalization the behavior remains the same but it occurs in response to OTHER stimuli that are similar to the original. In response generalization the behavior changes to a similar behavior in response to the same stimuli and in the hopes of the same reinforcement.
How are 'prompting' and 'fading' related?
A prompt is a cue to the subject that a particular behavior is needed. Eventually you want to decrease the need for the prompt by fading (using it less and less).
When each behavior in a sequence is reinforced and serves as a cue to perform the next behavior, this is known as what?
Chaining. At the end of the chaining sequence a big reinforcement is given too.
When a father says "if you eat your spinach, you can go out and play," he is using what technique?
The premack principle... using a high frequency behavior (presumed to also be highly reinforcing) to reinforce a low frequency behavior.
Suzy was getting paid every time she cleaned her room and washed the dishes. When her mother bought a dishwasher, Suzy was not going to get paid anymore to wash the dishes. What would happen to her room cleaning behavior?
It would increase according to Skinner's Behavioral Contrast concept. When two behaviors are reinforced and one ceases to be reinforced, the other one will increase in frequency.
What types of models are likely to be imitated according to Social Learning TRheory?
High status, nurturant, same sex models.
What is Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)?
THe interactive triad of person=>behavior=>environment=>person...etc.
WHat is the main difference between social learning theorists and radical behaviorists?
Radical behaviorists say that ALL behavior is shaped by environment (reinforce and punish) but Bandura believed we perform behaviors b/c we anticipate reinforcement in the future. The theory recognizes cognitive actions by learner and the behaviorists do not acknowledge things that are not objectively observable.
What are 4 key steps to learning through observation?
1. Pay attention
2. Retention
3. Production (be able to reproduce the memory of how to do it)
4. Motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)