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### 21 Cards in this Set

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 Who has the highest suicide rate? a. people aged 24-44 b. people aged 55-64 c. people over 65 d. teenagers C. While the highest rates of suicide attempts occur between the ages of 24-44, the highest rates of completed suicides are among the elderly (65 and over). The greatest increase in suicide rates in recent years has been among teenager and young adults. If a person has a T-score of 70 in a normal distribution with 200 people, what does the 70 mean? a. 70th percentile b. 3 standard deviations above the mean c. z-score of plus one d. better than 97% D. This is a difficult question because none of the choices offer what you are expecting which would be "the 98th percentile." Instead the best choice is answer D, which is "better than 97%." In actuality, a T-score of 70 is two standard deviations above the mean (the mean of a T-score distribution is 50; the standard deviation is 10). When any score is two standard deviations above the mean, 98 percent of a the distribution is below that score. In this case, 98 percent of the scores are below a T-score of 70, in other words, better than approximately 97% of people in the distribution. Impressive aphasia is to Wernicke's area as what type of aphasia is to Broca's area. a. expressive b. global c. sensory d. receptive A. Both expressive aphasia and motor aphasia are alternative names for Broca's aphasia. Global aphasia (answer B)is due to damage to several regions of the brain including the cortex and basal ganglia. Answers C (sensory) and D (receptive) and impressive are all alternative names for Wernicke's aphasia. The theorist identified with ERG theory is: a. Alderfer b. McClelland c. Herzberg d. Locke A. Alderfer (1972) reduced Maslow's five needs to three: existence, relatedness, and growth. He also believed that needs don't necessarily progress from lower to higher levels and that people can be motivated by more than one need at a time. McClelland (answer B) used the Thematic Apperception Test to identify the needs that underlie job motivation. Herzberg (answer C) is associated with the two-factor theory of satisfaction and motivation and Locke (answer D) developed goal-setting theory. The symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can be alleviated through cognitive-behavioral treatments and mediation interventions that reduce activity in the: a. reticular activating system b. inferior colliculus c. caudate nucleus d. locus coeruleus C. The caudate nucleus appears to be overactive in people diagnosed with OCD. L.R. Baxter reports that both behavioral interventions and drug therapy affect metabolic rate in the caudate nucleus. the reticular activating system (answer A), which you should remember by now, is involved in attention and arousal. The inferior colliculus (answer B), controls auditory reflexes, and the locus coeruleus (answer D) may be associated with Depression and Panic Disorder. General symptoms that may accompany the third stage of Alzheimer's Dementia include: a. apathy and emotional blunting b. depression and anomia c. irritability and anger d. paranoia and labile mood b. A. These symptoms are characteristic of the the third stage of Alzheimer's Dementia according to many authors. The symptoms vary considerably from person to person and may include personality, behavioral, and cognitive changes. The symptoms of depression and anomia (answer B) and irritability and anger (answer C) are often seen during the first stage. Paranoia and labile mood (answer D) are characteristic of the second. With a diagnosis of Schizophrenia, the risk of the same diagnosis for a monozygotic twin is how many times greater than the risk for a dizygotic twin? a. one time b. two and a half times c. four times d. six and a half times B. The risk for an identical (monozygotic)twin to be diagnosed is about 46% and for fraternal (17%). 46 is about two and a half times 17, and thus "closest" to correct. Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of: a. treatment length b. treatment outcome c. both treatment length and outcome d. neither treatment length and outcome A. While the findings are not entirely clear, overall there is a greater impact on premature termination rather than outcome, due to ethnic matching. It also seems that some groups are more likely to benefit than others. When there are benefits, they are usually related more to dropout rates than to treatment effectiveness. Spinal Cord's four regions Cervical (innervates ring and little fingers) Thoracic (innervates the hand and arm) Lumbar (innervates hip, thigh, and leg) Sacral (innervates trunk) The WAIS-III measures working memory with which of the following subtests? a. matrix reasoning b. block design c. arithmetic d. digit symbol-coding C. The arithmetic subtest along with the digit span subtest and letter-number sequencing subtest are used as measures of the Working Memory Factor. Matrix reasoning (answer A) and block design (answer B) are part of the Perceptual Organization Factor. Digit-symbol coding (answer D) is included in the Perceptual Speed Factor. A pianist comes to your office for therapy after having sustained a head injury in a recent car accident. He has lost sensation in the fingers of his left hand and feels he "must be going crazy" because this is such a strange occurrence. Before you pull out the DSM-IV, you refer him to a neruologist because you suspect the head injury may have caused damage to the a. precentral gyrus b. postcentral gyrus c. lateral fissure d. central sulcus B. Loss of sensation due to brain injury is likely to involve the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe, not the pre central gyrus (answer A). The lateral fissure(answer C)separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes and that the central sulcus (answer D) divides the frontal and parietal lobes. You explain that cocaine affects the brain in following manner: a. it increases epinephrine b. it increases glutamate c. it decreases serotonin d. it increases dopamine D. Cocaine is believed to block the reuptake of dopamine. As dopamine collects in the neurons of the limbic system, it continues to stimulate receiving cells. Tricyclic antidepressants, as compared to MAO inhibitors, a. are more effective in the treatment of the vegetative symptoms of depression. b. are more effective in the treatment of atypical depression. c. are less effective in the treatment of panic disorder. d. are associated with a greater range of dangerous side effects. A. The tricyclic antidepressants include imipramine, clomimpramine, and amitriptyline. In the treatment of depression, they are most effective in relieving vegetative symptoms such as appetitive, sleep, and motor disturbances. By contrast, the MAO inhibitors are more effective in the treatment of atypical depressions. Cross-validation is necessary to: a. determine how much of the original variability in a validity coefficient is due to error. b. obtain a validity coefficient c. assess the reliability of a test d. analyze the results of a multiple hurdle test battery A. Cross-validation entails revalidating a predictor after an original validity coefficient for the predictor is obtained. More specifically, it typically involves choosing items for a predictor, or tests for a predictive battery, based on how valid those items or tests are for a sample of people; afterwards, the validity of the retained predictor(s) is assessed using a second sample. Usually validity is lower for the cross-validations (second) sample than it is for the validation (original) sample. This is because the original validity coefficient reflects both actual predictive value and, to some degree, error (or the degree to which chance factors related to the characteristics of the validation sample inflated the validity coefficient). In other words, cross-validation indicates the degree to which the originally computed variability in a validity coefficient is due to error or chance factors. Emotional responses such as anger and fear are mediated by which of the following brain structures? a. amygdala b. pons c. thalamus d. hypothalamus A. The amygdala is a limbic system structure that apparently functions to integrate and direct emotional behavior. It attaches emotional significance to sensory stimuli and mediates defensive and aggressive behavior (i.e., behavior based on fear and anger). Damage to the amygdala can produce Kluuver-Bucy syndrome, which involves, among aother things, reduced fear and aggression. The differential diagnosis between Schizoid Personality Disorder and Avoidant Personality Disorder is based on: a. degree of isolation b. odd behaviors c. self-centeredness d. fear of rejection D. Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a pattern of indifference to social relations and a limited range of emotional expression in social situations. Avoidant Personality Disorder is characterized by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Individuals with both these disorder are likely to avoid social relationships. However, those with Avoidant Personality Disorder do so due to timidity and fear of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder, by contrast, do so out of indifference to social relationships and a preference for social activities. A therapist working from the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy would approach the treatment of Panic Disorder by: a. having the client identify maladaptive thoughts that precede panic attacks and then restructuring those thoughts. b. connecting the panic attacks to the client's overall attributional styles. c. teaching the client methods of self-reinforcement to suse when he or she is not having a panic attack and methods of self-punishment to use when he or she is having one. d. identifying and modifying the client's interpretation of panic attacks and their associated physical symptoms. D. Cognitive therapists believe that Panic Disorder is connected to "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily sensations, symptoms, and mentation. The client's overcastrophization of early signs of the attack such as hyperventilation results in a full-blown attack. Thus, at least initially, therapy focuses on identifying and modifying the client's misinterpretations of symptoms and thoughts immediately before and during the attack. Which of the following is associated with high inter-rater reliability? a. mutually exclusive rating categories b. highly correlated rating categories c. use of a coefficient of equivalence d. use of the correction for attenuation formula A. Inter-rater reliability is increased when non-correlated, mutually exclusive rating categories are used. This makes it easier for raters to determine which category a behavior fits under. Excluding the olfactory nerves, sensory afferent nerves run through which part of the brain? a. caudate nucleus b. cerebellum c. thalamus d. cingulate gyrus C. The thalamus acts as a "relay station" for all the senses except smell. That is, it receives impulses from the senses and then transmits the information to other parts of the brain. Olfactory information is projected to various parts of the limbic system. An individual displays severe tremors, lack of balance, and "drunken-like" movements. This individual's condition is most likely the result of damage to which of the following brain structures? a. cerebellum b. hypothalamus c. medulla d. hippocampus A. The cerebellum plays a role in motor functions such as balance, coordination, and refined movements. Disturbances involving incoordination of voluntary movements are often related to cerebellar damage. An advantage of using a MANOVA over multiple one-way ANOVA's is that: a. the use of a MANOVA reduces the experiment-wise error rate. b. a MANOVA can be used when the study involves more than one dependent variable. c. a MANOVA is the more appropriate test when the researcher has an a priori hypotheses about the nature of the relationship between the independent and independent variables. d. a MANOVA involves simpler mathematical calculations. A. When a study involves two or more dependent variables, data can be analyzed with either multiple (one for each dependent variable) statistical tests (e.g., multiple one-way ANOVA's) or one MANOVA. An advantage of the latter technique is that it reduces the probability that at least one Type I error (incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis) will be made. This is because the fewer statistical tests one conducts, the less likely it is that a Type I error will occur. In an experiment that involves more than one comparison, the probability of at least one Type I error is referred to as the experiment-wise error rate.