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47 Cards in this Set

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Group Polarization
tendency of people to be more extreme in their beliefs when part of a group of likeminded people
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
we infer our emotions from our behaviors

emotions follow muscular & visceral reactions to stimuli
Acculturation Modes
JW Berry

MARGINALIZATION: person does not identify with own or dominant culture
INTEGRATION: person maintains own culture & incorporates dominant culture
ASSIMILATION: person accepts majority culture, not own
SEPARATION: person withdraws from dominant culture, accepts their own
Enculturation
JW Berry

acquisition of qualities needed to function as a member of one's group

3 types of transmission:
vertical (from parents)
horizontal (from peers)
oblique (from other adults & societal organizations)
Coercive Power
French & Raven, 1959, types of social power

influencing the behavior of another by controlling punishments
Referent Power
French & Raven, 1959, types of social power

power we give to someone because we like them or view them as a role model, also refers to a group's ability to control the behaviors of its members because of their desire to identify with the group
_______ is a major factor in social influenceability
Eagly

social status
Legitimate Power
French & Raven, 1959, types of social power

emphasizes position of power & another's obligation to comply
Expert Power
French & Raven, 1959, types of social power

emphasizes superior knowledge or expertise
Loss Aversion Model
Kahneman & Tversky

people's decisions are more affected by desire to avoid loss than by desire to make gains

this bias can result in making decisions that are not objectively best
High Context Cultures
emphasis on nonverbal communication, the situation, & meanings shared by group members

e.g., Mexican, African American

mainstream white culture is low context, focus is on what is explicitly verbalized
Code Switching
aka, language switching

shifts between languages during a conversation

can serve several functions: to express oneself better or to express solidarity with one's cultural group
% of teens reporting condom use at last intercourse
60%
Self Perception Theory
individuals make attributions about their attitudes & behaviors based on observations of their behaviors & other external cues
McGuire's Theory of Inoculation
model: pre exposure to a weaked form of a virus creates resistance to it

a weak counterargument produces more resistance to persuasion than hearing support for one's position
Reactance
tendency of people to do the opposite of what they are asked to do, especially when they feel their personal freedom is being threatened
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Festinger, 1957

people change their attitudes to reduce aversive arousal they experience when they become aware of inconsistency in their cognitions

occurs especially when a person has a certain attitude & behaves as if they had the opposite
Autoplastic
reacting to stress by blaming oneself or trying to change oneself

used by neurotic people, according to some theorists
Alloplastic
reacting to stress by blaming external environment or trying to change it

thought to be more common in people with personality disorders
Cultural/Racial Identity Development Model
Sue & Sue, 1993, 5 stages:

CONFORMITY: preference for dominant culture

DISSONANCE: questioning dominant attitudes

RESISTANCE/IMMERSION: commitment to minority culture

INTROSPECTION: recognize positive aspects of majority culture

INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS: multicultural perspective

Each stage in this model is characterized by a different combination of attitudes toward one's own minority group, other minority groups, and the majority (dominant) group
Asch's Study of Conformity
conformity peaked with a group size of 7 people who were unanimous regarding incorrect judgement of line length (1/3 of subjects conformed)
Lewin's Field Theory
a person's behavior is a function of the person & the environment in the immediate present

was interested in the uniqueness of individuals
Density Intensity Hypothesis
a crowd enhances positive experiences & situations but makes unpleasant ones moreso
Fundamental Attribution Error
natural tendency to make dispositional (vs situational) attributions about a person's behavior
Defensive Attribution
made specifically to relieve one's anxiety
Social Facilitation
tendency toward improved task performance in the presence of others
Deindividuation
Zimbardo, 1970

tendency to act in uncharacteristic ways when anonymity is likely

believed to result from:
decreased sense of responsibility
reduced self-consciousness
lowered fear of evaluation
loss of other inhibitory factors
Idiosyncracy Credits
earned by initially conforming to the group's norms

group is later more tolerant of any deviations from certain group norms
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
a person has to choose between 2 unpleasant alternatives that would both lead to negative results

most difficult to resolve, most stressful, lots of vacillation
Approach-Approach Conflict
person must choose between 2 desirable alternatives& afterward slightly devalues the alternative not chosen (sort of like cognitive dissonance)

source of stress = wanting it all, but not being able to have it
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
person is both drawn to & repelled by the same alternative or must choose whether to do 1 thing that will have both desirable & undesirable results

result will be good & bad either way, leads to ambivalence

As distance from the goal decreases, the strength of both the "approach gradient" and the "avoidance gradient" increases. However, the strength of the avoidance gradient increases more rapidly, meaning that, as you get closer to the goal, the more likely that you will choose to avoid it.
Gain-Loss Theory
we are most attracted to people who initially dislike us but then come to like us

it is the direction (increasing liking) that matters most
Overjustification Hypothesis
when an external reward is given for performing an intrinsically rewarding activity, the person's intrinsic activity will decrease

interpreted in terms of Bem's Self-Perception Theory (people make attributions about their attitudes by observing their own behaviors)
Social Trap
conflict that occurs when behavior has positive short-term effects but negative long term effects
Social Readjustment Scale
Holmes & Rahe, 1967

developed to measure life stress & examine the stress-illness relationship

most stressful events:
death of spouse (100 pts)
divorce (73 pts)
marriage (50 pts)
retirement (45)
death of close friend (37)
foreclosure (30)
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
people are persuaded by 1 of 2 routes:
CENTRAL- message elaboration, requires deep thought
PERIPHERAL- aspects not central to message, such as speaker's appearance, expertise, etc
Sleeper Effect
in persuasion, people eventually forget the source of a communication, but still remember the message
Social Inhibition
inhibition or worsening of performance when a novel or complex task is performed in a group
Social Influence
effect of others on a person in terms of conformity & obedience
Need complementarity
opposites attract (people frequently choose partners who differ from them in terms of personality)
reciprocity hypothesis
people tend to like others who like them
matching hypothesis
people of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select one another
propinquity
physical proximity

a major factor in attraction
Psychiatric illness in immigrants
higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization in immigrant groups, especially young men

well acculturated show best adjustment

age of family members plays most important role in rate of acculturation

psychiatric problems tend to peak between 1 and 3 years after arrival
Normative Conformity
occurs when people comply with the majority's standards for acceptable behavior because they want to be liked

more likely when majority group has consensus

occurs when a person sees themself as similar to the majority

results in public agreement, but not private acceptance
Information Conformity
tendency for people to conform to the majority because they want to perceive reality correctly

more likely when the task is ambiguous or difficult

more likely when majority has consensus
Cross' revised model of identity development for African-Americans
5 stages:
pre-encounter
encounter
immersion-emersion
internalization
internalization-commitment