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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
first studied in monkeys with bilateral lesions in the amygdala & anterior temporal lobes

involves agnosias, placidity, apathy, compulsive oral behaviors, hypersexuality

frequently includes amnesia, aphasia, dementia, seizures
Gerstmann's Syndrome
lesions of the dominant parietal lobe resulting in:
R-L disorientation
finger agnosia
Ganser's Syndrome
type of factitious disorder

involves giving slightly wrong answers to questions
Hypnopompic Hallucinations
occur upon awakening

can occur with narcolepsy
Hypnogogic Hallucinations
occur as a person falls asleep

can occur with narcolepsy
Foods high in Tyramine:
should be avoided by people taking MAOI's

AVOID ENTIRELY: alcohol, fava or broad beans, aged cheese, liver, orange pulp, pickled or smoked meats, packaged soups, yeast supplements, meat extracts, summer sausage

LIMIT: soy sauce, sour cream, bananas, avocados, eggplant, plums, raisins, spinach, tomatoes, yogurt
restlessness & dysphoria (anxiety, depression, or unease)

most prevalent side effect of neuroleptics/antipsychotics

common reason for medication noncompliance
Theta waves
predominant when a person drifts into stage I sleep
Delta waves
occur during deep sleep

prominent during the first third of the night

muscle activity increases in stage 4 sleep, sleep terrors & sleep walking most likely
Alpha waves
occur when a person closes their eyes & relaxes
Beta waves
present during alert activity
Yerkes-Dodson Law
peak performance is usually attained at moderate levels of arousal

curvilinear relationship between performance & arousal (inverted U shape)
Sexual Dimorphism
systematic differences between different genders in the same species

in humans differences result from interaction between environment & biology; there are differences in the human brain

less in humans compared to other species
Best drugs to treat OCD

most commonly used:
Prozac (fluoxetine), an SSRI
Anafranil (clomipramine), a tricyclic
a hindbrain structure important in balance & posture, & vital for coordinated & refined motor movements
Cingulate Gyrus
a limbic system structure associated with the initiation of responses
Function of the Corpus Callosum
transfer sensory (& some motor) information from 1 hemisphere to the other
involved in memory consolidation, explicit memory, & spatial memory
Medial Temporal Region
includes parts of the temporal lobe, hippocampus, & amygdala

function: declarative memory (autobiographical & semantic), spatial memory, etc
Parkinsonian Personality
melancholia, introversion, pessimism

early depressive symptoms most common in young patients & patients with a family history of the disease

symptoms of depression considered endogeneous, will be experienced by 50% at some time
Classic Migraines
begin with an aura
Common Migraine
does not begin with an aura
Just Noticeable Differences
used by psychophysicists to study the relation between changes in physical stimuli & psychological responses to those changes

JND's are considered equal but the corresponding physical stimuli are not (adding 10 lbs is different if you start with 1 lb than if you start with 100 lbs)
study of the relationship between stimulus magnitude & perception of that stimulus
Best intervention for smoking cessation
nicotine replacement (short term effect) + behavioral treatment (long term effect)
best smoking cessation intervention for the workplace
Klesges, 1987

behavioral programs + worksite competition & incentives
Abstinence Violation Effect
Marlatt & Gordon, 1985

recovery after a relapse is related to attributions for the cause of the relapse & situational factors

recovery is more likely when external, unstable, specific high-risk factors are blamed
lowest structure of the brain stem

involved in vital autonomic functions such as breathing, heartbeat, & blood pressure
Parkinson's Disease
progressive neurological condition characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, & postural instability

primary site of neuronal/dopamine loss is the substantia nigra (part of basal ganglia)

motor symptoms are initially alleviated by L-dopa (a dopamine agonist)
inability to perform intentional motor movements in the absence of impaired motor functioning

symptom of parietal lobe damage
Occipital Lobe
most posterior portion of the cerebral hemispheres

contains the primary sensory cortex for vision

damage may cause: visual object & color agnosias, word blindness, blind spots (scotoma)

tumor may cause: confabulation, irritability, suspiciousness, prosopagnosia
Korsakoff's Syndrome
aka, Alcohol_Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder (DSMIV)
retrograde & anterograde amnesia, confabulation,

believed to be due to a thiamine deficiency

often preceded by Wernicke syndrome
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Symptoms: trembling, sweating, nausea, dizziness, increased appetite with weight loss, general excitability, nervousness, depression, memory & judgement problems, insomnia
Frontal Lobes
primary motor, premotor, prefrontal areas

involved in executive functions, personality & mood, motor functions

damage can cause: poor judgement, impulsivity, personality changes
Parietal Lobe
central lobe bounded by the central & lateral fissures, contains the somatosensory cortex

damage may cause: apraxia, inability to recognize objects, problems with L-R orientation, contralateral neglect, Gerstmann Syndrome

tumor may cause: dysgraphia, depression, apathy, denial of problems
regulation of temperature, hunger, thirst, sex, aggression, & sleep
Temporal Lobe
auditory perception & memory

tumors may affect memory, may cause hallucinations (especially auditory), usually affect mood
beta blocker

used to treat hypertension, irregular heartbeat, physical symptoms of anxiety

side effects: bradycardia, depression, insomnia, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, light-headedness
Transcortical Aphasia
occurs when major speech areas in the L (dominant) hemisphere become isolated from other cortical areas due to loss of blood supply

deficits in expressing oneself & comprehension (with some automatic & imitative speech)
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
co-occurrence of Wernicke Syndrome & Korsakoff Syndrome

greater loss of recent memories than of remote memories
Prospective Memory
ability to remember to perform an intended action at a point of time in the future

linked to prefrontal lobes & executive functions
brain abnormalities in ADHD
reduced blood flow to the frontal lobes (hypofrontality); also lower activity than normal in the basal ganglia

dopamine depletion

smaller than normal caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, & prefrontal cortex
Right hemisphere functions
recognizing faces
spatial skills
intuitive thinking

some say is predominant in emotional behavior; some say specifically involved in negative emotions

emotional symptoms of damage: indifference, verbal disinhibition, denial of one's disabilities
Left Hemisphere functions
logical, analytical thinking

some say is implicated in positive emotions

emotional symptoms of damage: depression, mood changes, anxiety, irritability
loss of language functioning as a result of brain impairment
Broca's Aphasia
aka, expressive, motor & nonfluent aphasia

nonfluent output (slow & difficult), poor repetition, intact comprehension
Wernicke's Aphasia
aka, receptive, sensory, & fluent aphasia

fluent but meaningless output, impaired repetition, poor comprehension, anomia
reticular activating system

mediates attention, arousal & sleep-wake cycle
Huntington's Disease
disorder of mood, cognition, movement

mood/cognitive symptoms (depression, withdrawal, forgetfulness) usually appear before motor symptoms

early motor symptoms = fidgeting, clumsiness; later motor symptoms = athetosis (slow writhing movements) & chorea (involuntary, rapid, jerky movements)

causes symptoms of dementia eventually

associated with a loss of GABA & glutamate in the basal ganglia
Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium
aka, delirium tremens

disturbances of consciousness & other cognitive functions

autonomic hyperactivity, hallucinations, delusions, agitation following a period of prolonged or heavy use
Wernicke Syndrome
ataxia, abnormal eye movements, confusion related to alcohol abuse
structures of the limbic system
hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, parts of the thalamus
functions of the limbic system
emotions, memory, hunger & satiety (thalamus)
Location of Broca's area
left inferior frontal area
Location of Wernicke's area
temporal lobes
inability to perform calculations

results from damage to the parietal lobe
Medications used to treat Bipolar I
lithium, & if it is ineffective & contraindicated:

Depakene/valproic acid
Medications used to treat Bulimia
tricyclic antidepressants:

small doses of antipsychotics are used to treat:
behavioral & emotional problems in the Autism spectrum


delirium (especially Haldol)
stages of withdrawal from benzodiazepines
Stage 1: tremors, sweats, agitation, & increased autonomic reactions

Stage 2: hallucinations & panic

Stage 3: grand mal seizures,

* sudden withdrawal can be fatal
symptoms of withdrawal from antipsychotics
insomnia, nightmares, & gastrointestinal distress
symptoms of withdrawal from opiods (narcotics, such as heroin)
nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, dysphoric mood
symptoms of withdrawal from stimulants (cocaine or amphetamines)
dysphoria & fatigue
Gate Control Theory of Pain
Melzack & Wall, 1960's

chemical gates reside in the neural pathway in the spinal cord that carries messages of pain from the body to the brain

gates can be open or closed; negative emotional states are thought to open the gates
Locus Ceruleus
nucleus in the brain stem that apparently is responsible for physiological reactions to stress & anxiety

a main source of norepinephrine
more severe blow to the head than a concussion

afterward may experience headache & unilateral numbness
apathy & decrease in voluntary movements

a side effect of antipsychotics/neuroleptics
shuffling gait & tremor

a side effect of neuroleptics/antipsychotics
Tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the face & limbs

a side effect of antipsychotics/neuroleptics
Cluster Headaches
type of vascular headache, typically involves unilateral pain in the orbital or frontal regions

can be precipitated by alcohol, more common in men,usually begin during sleep, recur over a period of days or weeks: closely spaced attacks of intense pain followed by remissions of varying length
Characterics of Migraines
type of vascular headache, unilateral throbbing pain, pulsating, moderate to severe intensity, aggravated by physical activity, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia, usually in frontal & temporal lobes, more common in women
Side effects of SSRI's
headaches, nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, gastrointestinal distress, & sexual dysfunction
Grave's Disease
most common form of hyperthyroidism
decreased appetite with weight gain, sluggishness, fatigue, impaired memory & intellect
medications that reduce sexual arousal & desire & lead to orgasmic difficulty include:
SSRI's, TCA's, & phenothiazines/antipsychotics
Minor tranquilizers
include benzodiazepines

sedating effect, used on a short-term basis for reduction of high levels of anxiety or subjective distress

result in tolerance & withdrawal
* Acetylcholine (Ach)
* Catecholamines (norepinephrine/noradrenaline, epinephrine/adrenaline, & dopamine
* Serotonin (5-HT)
* Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
* Glutamate
* Endorphins

in peripheral nervous system, causes muscles to contract

in central nervous system, involved in memory, REM sleep, regulation of the sleep-wake cycle

2 types of cholinergic receptors: nicotinic (excitatory) & muscarinic (inhibitory)

nicotine mimics Ach
involved in personality, mood, memory & sleep

low levels of norepinephrine & dopamine associated with some forms of depression

excessive dopamine activity associated with schizophrenia & Tourette's

dopamine involved in muscle activity (degeneration of dopamine receptors in substantia nigra in Parkinson's)

elevated dopamine in the mesolimbic system implicated in effects of stimulants, opiates, alcohol, & nicotine
usually has an inhibitory effect

implicated in mood, hunger, temperature regulation, sexual activity, arousal, sleep, aggression, & migraines

elevated levels may contribute to schizophrenia & autism

low levels related to depression, suicide, PTSD, OCD, & aggression
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
an inhibitory neurotransmitter

linked to sleep, eating, seizure, & anxiety

levels are affected by benzo's & othe rCNS depressants

degeneration of cells that secrete GABA in the basal ganglia contribute to motor symptoms of Huntington's
excitatory neurotransmitter

plays a role in learning, memory, long-term potentiation

excessive acticity can lead to seizures, stroke-related brain damage, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, etc
"endogenous morphines"

inhibitory neuromodulators

lower sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons

analgesic properties, may be involved in acupuncture

implicated in some pleasureable experiences, control of emotions, memory, learning & sexual behavior
slurred speech, severe tremors, & loss of balance

can be produced by damage to the cerebellum
inability to recognize one's own neurological symptoms

caused by parietal lobe damage
Conductive Aphasia
caused by damage to the arcuate fasciculus, which connects Wernicke's & Broca's areas

intact comprehension, impaired repetition, anomia
Dopamine Hypothesis
Schizophrenia is related to overactivity at dopamine receptors (either due to oversensitivity or excessive dopamine levels)

supported by finding that amphetamines & other drugs that elevate dopamine produce psychosis in non-schizophrenics + low doses increases symptoms of schizophrenics
Associative Visual Agnosia
a person recognizes a familiar object but is unable to name it
Aperceptive Visual Agnosia
cannot name a familiar object she sees but can name it when it is placed in her hand