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268 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
central nervous system consists of_____ and _____
brain and spinal cord
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
somatic nervous system does what 2 things?
regulates sensory and voluntary motor activity
what pathway does info take in the somatic NS?
environment --> sensory organs --> central nervous system --> skeletal muscles
the autonomic nervous system controls
automatic functions (e.g. BP, respitation, digestion, heart rate)
autonomic nervous system is split into the ___ and ____
parasympathetic and sympathetic ns
parasympathetic ns controls
daily living, digestion, elimination, etc. It conserves energy
sympathetic ns controls
fight or flight response, arousal - it spends energy
neurons work through
conduction and action potentials
5 major neurotransmitters
afferent nerves pathway
info --> sense organs --> CNS
efferent nerve pathway
info from CNS --> muscles/glands
brain - three main structures
primitive (on top spinal cord)
old brain - basic drives, (limbic system) fear, hunger, pleasure
Newer brain - cerebral cortex or "cerebrum" - higher cog, emotional and motor fx
spinal cord send info to and from ___ to ____
info btwn brain and PNS
Injury to the SC leads to 4 potential types of paralysis
parapalegia - paralysis of two lower limbs
quadriplegia - from neck down
hemiplegia - one side
paresis - partial
- complete cut above pt where nerves innervate lower body
cut above innervation point of upper body
partial cut --> arm and leg of one side resis
partial paralysis due to less severe damage
paresis can lead to 2 types of issues
parasthesia - abnomral sensations
hypersthesis - increased sensitivity
direct communication between CNS and PNS without brain involvement
glial cells
support cells (structure, cleaning)
10,000 billion
4 main parts of the neuron
dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons
what effects speed of conduction?
nothing - more stim only increases number of acton potentials
speed of conduction is effected by
diameter of axon, myelin sheath
Muscular dystrophy
MS due to lack of mylein sheath
acetocholine is found in
CNS and in neuromuscular junctions
acetocholine has a _____ effect on muscular neurons and a _______ effect on heart/resp muscles
excitatory - causing contraction of the muscles
inhibitory - slows down
problems with ACH transmission cause what types of problems?
1. voluntary movement
2. heart and resp. problems
examples of ACH blockers
curare - blocks ACH receptors
nerve gasses - blocks enzyme that breaks down ACH in heart/resp
myathenia gravis - ACH loss in muscle fibers --> weakness
ACH acts on the hippocampus and cortex in what way?
What disease is casued by loss in these areas?
learning and memory
What happens if interference in ACH production in hippocampus/cortex
prevention of memory formation
serotonin affects what?
personality, drive states, mood
reduction in serotonin increase what?
depression, obesity, anxiety, aggression, pain, and sleep
space btwn neurons
NT are produced where?
cell body
what terminates synaptic transmission?
reuptake by tb's and enzymatic degredation
catecholemines (name 3 types)
norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
catecholemines affects?
personality, drive states, mood
reduction in catecholemine production leads to
depression, parkinsons' related rigidity
increase in catecholemine production leads to
schizophrenia symptoms
most common inhibitory NT in brain
reduction in GABA production leads to
anxiety, Huntington's chorea
symptoms of Huntington's chorea
involuntary jerky movements in extremities, dementia,
most common excitatory nt in the CNS
Glutamate is found in the ___ and is related to ____
hippocampus (memory)
increase in glutamate leads to what problem?
brain damage from stroke
hindbrain is composed of the
brainstem (pons and medulla)
breathing, HR, digestion, BP
damage is fatal
pons controls _____ through the ______
arousal states
raphe nuclei
pons is located
connecting cerebellum and above the medulla
raphe nuclei uses what nt to trigger and maintain ______?
uses serotonin to trigger and maintian short wave lseep
cerebellum is part of what system?
the extrapyramidal
cerebellum controls what?
blanace, coordinated movements, posture
cerebellum damage causes
slurring of speech, loss of balance, tremors
midbrain passes info btwn the ____ and _____
brain and SC
midbrain contains which two structures?
substantia nigra and reticular formation
substantia nigra is part of the ____system; controls ____ movements; and injury leads to ________disorder
part of the EPMS
voluntary movements
injury --> parkinsons
reticular formation follows what pathway as ________
sc --> hindbrain --> midbrain
diffuse interconnected neurons
reticular formation plays a role in what functions?
sleep, arousal, pain, touch, reflexes
fibers from what strcutures makes us the reticular activating sytem?
reicular formation, thalamus, certain sensory brain areas
RAS effects what?
maintains waking state, arousal, selective attention (it filters info)
forebrain is made up of what structures?
hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system
hypothalamus basic 2 jobs
maintaing homeostasis (temperature, metabolisms, appetite for specific nutrients) and causes motivated beahviors
hypothalamus maintains homeostasis through which structure?
pituitary gland by effecting the autonomic and endocirne systems
which structure translates strong feelings in racing heart, increased BP/HR, etc.
SCN is part of the _____ and controls what through what mechanism?
circadian ryhtms
taking info from retina, interpreting, and passing to pituitarty to produce melatonin to promote sleep
thalamus (is called _____) sends info from _____ to _____ and from ___ to ____
"central switching station" - relays info from senses (except olfactory) to cortex AND
cortex to subcotrical regions
basal ganglia process info that
controls voluntary movement
3 structures of the basal ganglia are connected to the ____ and ____
globus palliud, caudate nucleus, and putamen substantia nigra and cerebellum
EPMS contains the following strcutures:
basal ganglia, substantia nigra, and cerebellum
EPMS controls
smoothness and intiation of movement
Limbic system
group of brain strucutres that work together to mediate emotional compoenet of behavior
3 structre of limbic system
amygdala, septum, hippocampus
amygdala has 3 functions
1. integrates and directs emotional berhavior
2. attaches emotional signifcance to information recevied from the senses,
3. mediates defensive/ aggressive behaviors
damage to the amygdala in humans leads to
lack of emotional response to sitmulation
damage to the amygdala in monkeys leads to
Kluver Bcy Syndrome - no fear, anxiety, increases docility and hypersexuality
septum does what to emotionality?
in animals, damage to the septum leads to _____ and excitation leads to ___
septal rage - no inhibition so visciousness
pleasure (will learn lever press)
hippocampus is associated with
memory consolodation from STM---> LTM
damage to hippocampus, amygdala,and medial temproal lobes leads to
anterograde amnesia (no new memories) but still gets into STM
the cerebral cortex is diffeent in humans because
higher cognitive, most growth in humans, many strucural changes
4 lobes of cerebral cortex
parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital
frontal lobe contians 3 main structures
primary motor cortex
broca's area
association cortex
primary motor cortex controls
through whatpathway
voluntary movement that is fine and controlled (therefore, speed and strength)
motor cortex-> brain stem --> sprinal cord
damage to primary motor cortex causes
contralateral weakness, paralyis, or apraxia
reduced coordination of complx purposeful movements
broca's area is located in what lobe (usually)
broca's area controls
speech prodcution
dmage to broca's area causes _____ aphasia which is characterized by _____ and the person aware/unaware?
expressive aphasia; speek slowly with great difficulty, aware
association cortex
coordiantes activities of snesory and motor areas
damage to the association cortex causes _____
disruptions of planing i.e. executive functions, reduced intiative, self-awareness, and concreteness
frontal lobe personality
apathy, depressive, low planning
damage to frontal lobe leading to sexual inhibition, coarsness, lack of concern for others
temporal lobe controls 3 functions
receptive language, memory and emotion
primary auditory cortex is contained in the
temporal lobe
primary auditory cortex's function
mediates auditory input
damge to temporal lobe leads to
agnosia, deficits in slective attention, delusions, hallucinations, and mood distrubances
Wenicke's area is in the _____ and damage causes _____ and the person is aware/unaware
temproal lobe (left usually)
receptive aphasia - produces nonsense speech that sounds fluent and are unaware
Wenicke's area controls
comprehension of auditory stimuli
whatarea connect Wernickes and Broca's areas?
arcuate fasciculus
damage to the arcuate fasciculus causes
cannot repeat what is heard but can still understand and communicate
right temporal lobeis associated with
long-term potentiation (especially if dominant hemisphere)
temporal lobe epilepsy can lead to
personlaity change = intense emotions, religiosity, viscosity (clinging), rumination, change in sexual behaviors
parietal lobe contains the
primary somatasensory cortex whihc integrates somatosensory info and other senses such as sight
damage to the parietal lobe leads to what type of problems
sensory problems (usually contralaterally)
tactile agnosia
inability to identify by touch with the contralateral hand
contralateral neglect
loss of interest or knlweldge of other body parts
inability to write
impaired spatial and facial recognition is usually due to damage to the _______
temporal lobe
occipital lobe contains the
visual cortex
total destruction of the visual cortex leads to ____
less extensive damage leads to ___
-contralateral blindness
- blind spots, disotrtion, loss of epth, visual agnosia
visual agnosia
can't recognize objects by sight
lateralization of function
sensory and motor functions are contralateral and symmetrical while higher cortical fuctions are lateralized more
split brain patients - show picture to left visual field
info goes to right brain, not left so can't name pictures
split brain patients - can name object if in what hand?
right (info goes to left part of brain))
split brain patients can draw with left hand but not ______
with right hand
copy words
can't draw or do spatial problems
right brain controls
damage leads to
spatial, facial recognition, music; art, expression of emotion
left brain controls
damage leads to
rational, logic, language (written and spoken)
frued views emotion as
not under conscious control
related to drive states
james-lange theory
environmental stimuli-->specific autonomic arousal--> interpretation as emotional state (e.g. "afraid" b/c trmble)
cannon-bard theory
stimuli-->arousal and feeling
arousal accompanies (not causes) the feeling and all are identical
cognitve-arousal theory
Schacter and Singer
physical sensations are similar but attributions change the experience
Schacter and Singer are related to which theory and expeirment
epinephrine study
6 basic emotions
fear, anger, disgust, joy, sadness, surprise
most agree on the following about emotions:They are
innate, universal, and form basic components of more complex emotions
brain mechanism related to hunger and feeding ____
lateral hypothalamus controls
ventromedial hypothalamus controls
in rats: damage to lateral hypothalamus causes ____
stimulation of LH causes ___
damage to ventromedial hypothalamus causes _____
anorexia and adipsia (failure to drink)
overeating despite enough
overeating and increased body weight
in obsese people stress causes ____ and in non-obese stress causes -----
overeating and less eating
obesity is caused by ____ and less by ____
social cues and genetic metabolic rate
pituitary gland and gonads produce
sex hormones
hypothalamus --> pituitary--> LH and FSH. What do they do?
FSH stimulates sperm and release of ova
LH - stimulates androgens and estrogen to be released from gonads
lowered estrogen in menopause casues
lowered testosterone leads to
bone loss, risk of heart diease
lowered sex drive
HRT reduces symptoms of estrogen/progesterone loss butmay increase risk of
breast cancer
hypothalamic dysfunction casues
lowered sex drive, depresion,
castration reduces
libido and potency
low levels of androgens is called __ and leads to ___
less desire but still erection
sleep in rats is located in the
VLPO of the hypothalamus
sleep cycle last for ____ minutes and cycles approx. how ____ time sper night
5 stages of sleep cycle (starting with 0 = wakefullness and 1.)
0. alpha relaxed and beta active
1. transition - alpha lowers into theta wave (slower)
body relaxes, HR reduces
5 stages of sleep
(2. and 3.)
2. theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes
3. large, slow delta waves appear
sleep spindles are _____
K-complexes are _____
bursts of faster activity
higher amplitude waves
5 stages of sleep
(4. )
4. delta dominant, deep breathing, HR/BP decrease
longest at beg. and shortest by end of night
5 stages of sleep
REM - absence of muscle tone, mixxed EEG, "paradoxical sleep" b/c eeg looks aroused but no response to environment
starts 10 min --> 50 min
dreams occur in what stage?
all but REM most vivid, emotional, and memorable
REM over the life span
increase age REM reduces both # of hours and % of total sleep; 50% as infant; 20% as adult
sleep time _____ with age
REM and stage 4 deprivaiton leads to ____
increased anxiety and irritaiblity that remits as soon as get REM rebound (same with stage 4 deprivation)
can't fall asleep quickly, freqent waking, reduced delta sleep; also tend to underestimate sleep gotten
Sleep terror and sleepwalking occur in _____ stages of sleep
Nightmare disorder occurs in ___ stage
3 &4
Long-term memory stored in ____ and memory consolodation happens in the ____
tmeporal lobe and hippocampus
Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by a deficiency of ___ and causes lesions in the ____
and leads to _____ amnesia
thiamine/B vitamin
mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus and thlamus
retrograde & antereograde, and apathy, and confabulation
LTP happens in the ____ possibly by increased production of ______
RNA (e.g. planaria study)
reduced secretion of antidretic hormone causes
diabetes insidus (too much water loss)
adrenocorticotropic homrone (ACTH) casues what reaction?
adrenal cortex -->cortisol--> liver to release energy in the form of glucose
too little secretion of ACTH causes ___
Addison's disease (fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, apathy)
ie no release of energy into blood
too much secretion of ACTH causes ___
Cushings's Disease (obesity, memory loss, mood swings, depression, somatic delusions)
i.e too much energy, uncontrolled
cortisol is ____ by stress and fluctuates over the course of ___
the day
too little thyroxin (from the thyroid) in devlopment leads to _____
too much leads to ____
cretinism (phys and IQ impaired)
Grave's disease (hyperhtyroidism) - increased app, lowered weight, higher HR, agitation, reduced attention
diabetes melitus is caused by
pancrease cannot produce insulin
incresed absorption of glucose, mineral loss,
hypoglycemia is caused by
oversecretion of insulin, hunger, dizziness, headaches, anx/dep
visual pathway
light to cornea to pupil to lens to retina (rods/cones) to optic nerves to LGN of thalamus to visual cortex in occipital lobe
rods and cones synspase with the optic nerves through which channel?
bipolar cells to ganglion cells to bundle to optic nerve
optic disc (blind spot) is where ______ and half of the nerves _____ and half
the optic nerves leave the retina
cross and half go the same way
autditory pathway
vibration to auditory canal to eardrum to ossicles to oval window to liquid in cochlea to movement of hair cells to autidotry nerve to thalamus to auditory cortex in temporal lobe
what percent of auditory nerve fibers cross contralterally?
orientation to sound is ____ at birth and _____ 1-4 months then ____ until ______
pain is affected by
experience, attention, suggestiblity
chronic paion is correlated to what type of disorders?
gate control theory of pain regualtion
large fibers inhibit pain info from smaller fibers by competing ionformation (thus massage, distraction, cold/heat) reduce pain
what sense is not contralateral?
olfactory epithelium receptors projuect
directly into the limibc system (versus the thalamus or cortex)
Fechner's absolute threshold
weakest can detect 50% of the time
smallest phys difference btwn 2 stimuli recognized as different
relationship btwn phys stim andsensation differs for diff stim - e.g. 2x light = 2x birghtness but 2x heat is >2x
structural ct scan
x-rays slices and give info on density (tumors clots)
structural MRI
magnetic fields to produce 3d images, more precise
inject radioactive isotopes and assess neural activity
shows NT's, troke, epilepsy, tumors
single photon emission computer tomography
asses activity thrugh magnetic fields
Name 5 focal brain synsdromes
aphasia, apraxia
alexia, agnosia
language disturbance
a langauge isturbance of articuation due to lesion/disease such as Huntington's, Park or MS NOT an aphasia (b/c not localized)
Alexia (define and give exmaple)
reading disability
difficulty in recognizing or comprehending written language
inaiblity to perform or learn complex purposeful movment not due to muscle problems
ideomotor apraxia
cannot follow a command to move but can spontaneously
constructional apraxia
can't draw, copr or arrange blocks
can't recognize familiar object
aperceptvie agnosia
can't identify something kinesthetically
associative agnosia
can't name objects or match them (diss of language and visual)
can't recognize faces but can identify person by sound
(e.g. hemiplegia)
inability or unwillingness to recognize own fucntional impairment (will accept bizarre explanations for limb)
anosognosia versus contralateral neglect
cn will acknowledge limb if pointed out but will not see it or anything in opposite field
symptoms of brain tumors depend on
brain tuors tend to be located in ____ in adults and ____ in children
cerebral cortex
brainstem or cerebellum
first signs of brain tumors
depression/anxiety (often --> misdiangosis)
signs of brain tumors
headaches (dull and generalized), seizues (partial and onset in adulthood), nausea, ch in vision, hearing, focal signs
cerebrovascular accident is a
stroke leads to _____ damage and most start in the ____ leading to ______
middle cerebral artery
contralateral hemiplegia, sensory loss (esp. face, arm)
homonymous hemianopsia
middle cerebral artery feeds what areas?
frontal (basal ganglia), temporal, and parietal
homonymous hemianopsia
contralateral viual field loss
when only the dominant hemispehre is affected by a stroke,leads to?
aphasia, ideomotor apraxia, Gertsmann's syndrome
stroke in the anterior cerebral artery leads to ____
hemiplegia, snesory loss in contralateral side (usally lower limbs), dementia, affective disturbnace
anterior cerebral artery feeds ____
frontal and parietal lobes and corpus callosum and caudate
posterior cerebral artery feeds into ___
thalamus, temporal lobe,and occipital lobe
stroke in the posterior cerebral artery leads to ____
cortical blindness, anteregrade amnesia, and agitated delerium
symptoms of open head truama and duration
focal sympstoms, don't lose consciousness, resolves quickly
symptoms of closed head truama and duration
best predictor of recovery
more wide spread damage, lose consciousness
length of antereograde amnesia
post-concussive syndrome
further study by DSM-IV
sx last longer than 3 mo (fatigue dizziness, agressiveness)
Huntington's chorea:
transmission, age of onset, areas affected
genetically transmitted
30-50 yrs
cog/peron --> mvmnt (clumsiness to atheosis to chorea and tics) then parallel loss of cog/motor
slow writhing movments
clumsy jerky movements
rate and rythm of speech
Huntington's Chorea affects which brain strcutures and NT?
substantia nigra, basal ganglia, cortex
lowered metabolic activity (by PET); larger bg by MRI
glutamate, Ach, GABA, dopamine
Parkinson's movment probs
tremor, muscle rigidity, involuntary mvmnt, posture and equilibirum probs, akineisa
slowness of movement
blank face
emotionless speech
Comorbid with parkinson's ___
depression (40%)and in 20% precedes motor problems
dementia, cog slowing, memory probs due to lowered dopamine (SN)
3 classes of antidepressants
tricyclics - names and brand name
imiprimine (tofranil)
domipriminr (Anafranil)
amitriptyline (Elavil)
tricyclics - action
most effective for ____ symptoms
block reuptake of norepinephrine and 5HT at the synapse
- vegetative
uses of tricyclics
vegetative sx of depression
panic attacks, agoraphobia, obsessive states
anticholinergic effects of tricyclics _____
cardio effects ______
dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision
-tachycardia, blood pressure changes, palpitations
overdoes of tricyclics causes _____
cardiac arythmia
effects of tricyclics
gastrointestinal, lowered sexual f., rashes, sedation, insomia,confusion, anticholinergic, cardiovascula
combining MAOI's and tricyclics can lead to
death after severe convulsions
SSRI's names and brand
fluoxetine (Prozac)
sertaline (Zoloft)
paroxetine (Paxil)
SSRI's used for
depression, OCD, ED's
overdose of SSRI's
not cardiotoxic
DO NOT COMBINE with MAOI's, tri, anticonvulsants, orantipsychotics
side effects of SSRI's
less severe than Tricyclics
may worsen sleep problems, anxiety, alcathesia (motor restlessness)
SSRI's preferred b/c
less severe side effects, safe in overdose, no cognitve impairments, more rapid onset of effects
MAOI's names and brand
phenalizine (Nardil)
tranylcyromine (parnate)
acts by blocking reuptake of _____ (NT's)
5HT and norepinephrine
MAOI's best used for ______
atypical depression (hypersomnia, increased appetite, mood reactivity, > severe sx as day progresses, phobic anxiety)
side effects of MAOI's
dry mouth, hypotension, dizziness, weight gain, blurry vision, eadaches, hypertension (that can be fatal)
cannot eat ______ while taking MAOI's
cheese, soy sauce, wine, sour cream, bananas, plums egplant, tomatoes
"mood stabilizers"
valproic acid
anti-convulsants : carbamezepine (Tegretol)
side effects of lithium
gastric distress, weight gain, tremor (35% in fingers), fatigue, cognitive impairment
lithium toxicity
vomitting, abdominal pain, severe tremeor, ataxia --> death
lithium is used for
bipolar, shizophrenia, binge drinking, IED
side effects of anti-convulsant drugs
why use it over lithium?
agranulocytosis (rare), lethargy
faster onset
neuroleptics names and brand
chlorpromazine (thorazine)
thioidazine (Mellaril)
haloperidol (Haldol)
clozapine (Clozaril)
antipsychotics used for_____
most effective for ____
schiz and acute mania, and psychosis ass. with other disorders
- positive sx
how do neuroleptics work?
block primarily DA and probably other NTs
side effects of neuroleptics
anticholinergic and extrapyrimydal
tardive dyskinesia (involuntary), parkinsonism
tardive dykineisa can be alleviated with _____
6 months slow removal of the drug -sx will rebound and then decrease over time
Clozapine is considered _____
atypical - acts on multiple NTs (5HT, Dopamine, norepi)
no extrapyramidal SE (park and td) but agranulocytosis, higher rate of seizures
benzodiazepines names and brand
diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazapam (Klonopin), brazepam (ativan), trizolam (Halcion)
benzodiazepines used for ____
anxiety, insomnia, a/c withdrawl, petit mal epilpsy
benzodiazepines act through
increasing GABA (which is inhibitory)
side effects of benzodiazepines
drowsiness, sedation, weight gain, apathy, anterograde amneisa (with IV Valium and Ativan) and confusion (in the elderly)
problmes with benzodiazepines
addicitve and deadly if mized withalcohol or other CNS depressants
barbituates names and brands
secobarbital (Seconal)
thiopental (Pentothal)
amobarbital (amytal)
barbituates used for
problmes with barbituates
addictive --> tolerance, withdrwal seisures and death
drug of choice for suicides (reduce respiration)
mis with alcoholis fatal
betablockers names and brands
block what?
propranol (Inderal)
beta-adrenergic neurons
betablockers used for
hypertention, cardiocarythmia, migraines, anxiety (esp. perfomance related)
side effects of betablockers
heart rate reduction, hyperventiliation, SNS activitybradycardia, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, depression, memory impairmenty
abrupt withdrawl of betablockers leads to
sweating, tremors, palpitations, headaches
psychostimulants work by ____
mimicking or potentiaitng action of the catecholemines (norepi and epi)
psychostimulants names and brands
cocaine, amphetemines, methylphedine (Ritalin) and pemoline (Cylert)
psychostimulants used for treating _________
narcolepsy and ADHD
decrease motor activity & impulsivness and increase vigilance and attention
side effects of psychostimulants
overdose leads to ______
reduced appetite, irritability, sadness (half of all treated children), OCD, growth suppression
- psychotic sx
morphine, heroine, Percodan
used to treat ____
chronic pain
problems with the opiods
addictive, causes pupil contriction, lowered visual acuity, perspiration, gastric ditress, depression
overdose on opiods causes
lowered pulse, convulsions, coma death