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120 Cards in this Set

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Erikson’s Stages and virtues
1st year trust vs mistrust-hope

1-3 autonomy vs shame and doubt -willpower

3-5 initiative vs guilt -purpose

6 – 12 industry vs inferiority -competence

12-18 identity vs role confusion -fidelity

18-35 intimacy vs isolation -love

35-60 generativity vs stagnation- care

60+ integrity vs despair wisdom
Types of Prevention
Primary Prevention – reduces incidence, alcohol prevention through posters

Secondary Prevention – reduces prevalence, depression screening

Tertiary Prevention – reduces residual effects, AA
Minuchin's Rigid Triads
Minuchin’s Rigid Triads – result from chronic boundary problems

Triangulation – child is pulled into conflict, take one side or another

Detouring – Parent’s express conflict through the child

Stable Coalition – Family members unite against a third member
PROCHASKA’S MODEL OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE
Precontemplation – not aware

Contemplation – becomes aware, no action

Preparation – commitment to changes and forms a plan of action

Action – Change is initiated

Maintenance – relapse prevention
Cognitive Behavioral Therapies
BECK – Socratic questioning, hypothesis testing, collaborative, cognitive triad (self, world, future)

ELLIS – irrational beliefs, confrontive, persuasive

MEICHENBAUM – self instruction therapy (modeling and graduated practice), stress inoculation training (coping responses). Application in VIVO, coping skills acquisition, educational and cognitive prep

REIM: SELF CONTROL MODEL OF DEPRESSION. Depression results from: negative self-evaluations, lack of self reinforcement, high rates of punishment
Family Therapies
Object relations – transferences and projections

Structural family therapy (MINUCHIN) – hierarchies, boundaries, and systems. Therapist attempts to unbalance the structure

Strategic family therapy (HALEY) – communication and hierarchy

Communication family therapy – communication and impact on family functioning

BOWEN multigenerational family therapy – pathology is repeated throughout generations, goal is promote differentiation

MILAN systemic – circular questioning as a means introduces hypotheses

BEHAVIORAL OR SOCIAL LEARNING FAMILY THERAPY – concrete observable goals. Pathology results from deficient reward exchanges and communication deficits
Assumptions for Tests of Difference
(T-TEST, ANOVA, CHI SQUARE)
All tests of difference have an assumption of RANDOM SELECTION

Interval/Ratio Tests – normally distributed, homoscedasticity, interval/ratio data

CHI SQUARE – independence of observation
TESTS OF DIFFERENCE
T-TEST – one IV (type of tx, one or two groups compared

ONE –WAY ANOVA- one IV (type of tx), two or more groups

FACTORIAL ANOVA – two or more IVs (type of tx and gender) and data for each IV is independent

SPLIT-PLOT ANOVA – two or more IV (type of tx and time), when the data for one IV and another IV are correlated
BIVARIATE CORRELATION TESTS
Pearson R – both variables are continuous

Spearman’s Rho – both are ordinal

Biserial – one variable is an artificial dictomy
VIE THEORY
Expectancy - hard work will result in success

Instrumentality - successful task completion will result in rewards

valence - value that the reward has
DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY (I/O)
occurs when there are different criterian-related validity coefficients for minority and non-minority groups
ADVERSE IMPACT (I/O)
80% or 4/5ths rule
UNFAIRNESS (I/O)
occurs when ther are differences on predictor scores for the minority and non minority groups

Parallel regression lines
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
Needs are in hierarchy on importance
People want what they don't have
Five levels of needs:
Physiological
Safety
Belonging and Love
Esteem
Self Actualization

THIS IS NOT EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Based on Maslow:

Lower Level Needs (context)
-hygiene factors
-result in dissatisfaction, not satisfaction

Upper Level needs (content)
-motivators, can increase satisfaction, but will not decrease it
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Non-Hierarchical Needs based on:

Existence
Relatedness
Growth
McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
Three significant work related needs:
-nACH - desire to solve problems and master tasks
-nAFF - desire to establish and maintain friendly relations
-nPower - desire for control, influence, and be responsible for other

-NEEDS CAN BE DEVELOPED OVER TIME, NOT INNATE
-PEOPLE WITH HIGH ACHIEVEMENT NEEDS SET MODERATE AND ATTAINABLE GOALS
House's Path Goal Theory
Increase personal payoffs for subordinates and attempts to help achieve those payoffs

4 TYPES OF LEADERSHIP:
-Directive
-Supportive
-Achievement oriented
-participative
Hersey's and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
Leadership is based on employee's readiness to perform:

4 Styles of Leadership:
-Telling
-Selling
-Participating
-Delegating
VROOM and YETTON's model
Focus on Decision Making and extent to which leadrs allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions
Effective Leadership style depends on:
-importance of the decision
-degree to which it is accepted by subordinates
-time required to make a decision
Predictors of turnover and job success
Biodata- best predictor of job turnover
Assessment Centers - used on upper management
Cognitive Ability tests - good predictors of job success
Interest Tests - Poor predictor
Work Sample - good predictors of job success, best for minorities
biodata, assessment centers, cognitive ability tests, interest tests, work sample
Things that affect group process
Social Loafing - slacking when people aren't looking, in a group where individual contributions are not noticed

Social inhibition - indiv performance in impaired on novel tasks when others are looking

Deindividuation - suspending one's private identity and adopting the identity of the group

Groupthink - suspend ability to think critically, decisionmaking is more about maintaining cohesiveness
Total Quality Management
continuous improvement in the organization, an involves all levels

Based on:
-Customer Focus
-Total involvement
-Quantitative measurement of progress
- Systemic Support
-Continuous improvement
Risk Management
Planned Programs for loss prevention
Utilization Review
Focuses on costs and conserving resources
Quality Assurance
Monitoring and evaluating services in terms of availability and adequacy..improves access
Catell's Theory of Intelligence
Fluid vs Crystalized
Spearman's Theory of Intelligence
G Factor
Sternberg Theory of Intelligence
focus in assessment of intelligence is on process not outcome.

Three components:
-Internal componenets
-capacity to adapt to change
-ability to apply past experience to present
Gardener's Multiple Intelligences
Eight distinct intelligences
Factors affecting reliability
1. Number of items
2. Homogeneity of items
3. Unrestricted Range of scores helps reliability
4. Easier it is to guess, the less reliable the test is
Content validity
-How adequately a test samples a particular content area
- Quantified by asking a panel of experts
Criterion-related validity
How adequately a score can be used predict or estimate criterion outcome

Calculated by Pearson R
2 types of Criterion Related Validity
Concurrent- a test correlates well with a measure that has previously been validated.

Predictive - the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure
Construct Validity
How adequately a test measures a trait
How can Construct validity be calculated?
Factor Analysis
What are two types of Construct Validity
Convergent - shows that the assessment is related to what it should theoretically be related to.

Disciminant Validity - test has low correlation with a similar type of instrument which purports to measure a different construct
4 estimates of reliability
Test-Retest
Parallel Forms
Internal Consistency
Interrater reliability
Taylor-Russell Tables
A measure of incremental validity
Incremental validity
Amount of improvement in success rate that results from using a predictor test.
What do we need to calculate incremental validity
Base Rate - rate of selecting successful employees without using a test - Moderate base rate is best

Selection Ratio - porportion of available openings to available - low selection ratio is best
Convergent validity and Discriminant validity:

Heteromethod or Monomethod?
Monotrait or heterotrait
Convergent: heteromethod, monotrait

Disciminant: Monomethod, heterotrait
What does the standard error always have a direct relationship with? and an inverse relationship with?
Standard deviation

another variable in the equation
Proactive Interference
Previously learned information interferes with new information
Retroactive Inhibition
Recently learned information interferes with the recall of material that was previously learned.
Retrograde Amnesia
Amnesia for information prior to a particular event
Anterograde amnesia
amnesia for information following an event
Stages of memory
Sensory
Short Term
Long Term
Sensory memory
transforms and stores sensory input, lasts only a few seconds
Short term
processes and stores up to 30 seconds
Two types of short term memory
Primary memory - holding tank for information

Working memory
Long Term memory ( two types)
Recent memory (up to 2 weeks)
Remote (two weeks to years)
Explicit or declarative memory
memory for what is consciously recalled
2 types of explicit or declarative memory
Sematic - meaning or knowledge of facts

episodic memory - ability to recall autobiographical (graduation, 9/11)events
Implicit memory
unconscious recollection of skills (driving a car)
James Lange Theory (emotions)
I am running, so I must be afraid.

Emotions are the perception of bodily reactions
Cannon Bard Theory (emotions)
Emotions and Bodily reactions occur at the same time
Schacter's Two factor Theory (emotions)
emotions result from internal and external sources

Emotion is a function of physiological arousal and cognitive labelling
SEYLE's general adaptation syndrome
three stage response to stress:

Alarm
Resistance
Exhaustion
Schedule of Reinforcement (In order of response rate)
Variable Ratio ( # of response)
Fixed ratio (# of responses)
Variable Interval (time)
Fixed Interval (time)
backward conditioning
US is presented before the CS. NO CONDITIONING OCCURS
Pseudoconditioning
A response is emitted to a neutral stimulus that has not been paired
Stimulus discrimination
capacity to discriminate between two similar neutral stimuli, one that has been paired and one that hasn't
Behavioral Contrast
when one of two behaviors that are being reinforced stops being reinforced, the behavior decreases while the other increases
Chaining
complex sequence reinforces the previous behavior in the sequence and serves as a signal for the next behavior
stimulus control
person is instructed to limit his or her activities to a certain time of the day and/or specific location
Hypothalamic functions (5 Fs)
-fight or flight
-feeding
-falling asleep
-fornication
-Fever (temperature reg)
Frontal Lobe functions
Ability to shift sets
Logic
Planning and Organization
Personality
Parietal Lobe Functions
Sensations of light touch, pain, and heat
Proprioception - sensing of your own body parts
Temporal Lobe Functions
Auditory
Memory
Emotional behavior
Occipital Lobe Functions
Vision
Where is the damage for Wernickes
left temporal
What kind of aphasia is Wernicke's
sensory aphasia
Where is the damage for Broca's
frontal lobe
What kind of aphasia is Broca's
motor aphasia (expressive)
What are prodromal sxs
auras
cluster headaches
headaches that last/recur for days or weeks, begins during sleep, tend to be vascular
tension headaches
muscle contraction headaches
two types of Amino Acids
GABA - inhibitory
Glutamate - excitatory
Peptide NT
enkephalins and endorphins - natural painkillers
Single Subject Designs
AB - baseline followed by tx
ABAB
Multiple Baseline- tx applied sequentially or consecutively
Simultaneous tx
changing criterion
Demand characteristics (research)
aspects of the research that suggest how subject should behave
how do you control for demand characteristics?
by keeping the subjects blind
Expectancy (research)
unintentional effects that results from the experimenter inadvertently giving subjects cues as to how they should behave
Reactivity (research)
subjects responses only occur because they are participating in research
What is a threat to internal validity?
things other than the IV that can affect outcome
What is a threat to external validity
Generalizability
What is a threat to construct validity?
things other than the intervention that result in differences
What is a threat to statistical conclusion validity?
Statistical Problems/limitations that interfere with significant results being obtained
What are a list of threats to internal validity
History
Maturation
Testing
Instrumentation
Regression
Selection Bias
Attrition
Diffusion
What are a list of threats to construct validity
Amount of contact with clients
Experimenter expectancies
Demand characteristics
What are a list of threats to external validity
sample characteristics
stimulus characteristics
contextual characteristics
What is the Cognitive perspective on development
a result of interactions between biological factors and experience
What is the learning perspective on development
a focus on observable on measureable behaviors. Behavior is influenced by modeling and internal factors
What is the contextual perspective on development
human development can only be understood in its social context
What theory is the ethological persective similar to
attachment
What are the stages of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning?
- preconventional
- conventional
- Postconventional
Speak about Kohlberg's preconventional stage
Age 4-10
Two sub stages:
Punishment Obedience (everything is about avoiding punishment)
Instrumental Hedonism - good deed are rewarded
Kohlberg's Conventional Morality (2 stages)
Good Boy Good Girl - gaining approval

Law and Order - focus on doing one's duty
Kohlberg's Post Conventional Morality (2 stages)
13 and over

1. Morality of contract, individual rights and democratically accept laws

2. Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience - based on internalized standards
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
4 STAGES and discuss them
-Sensorimotor (sensory observation) to age 2
-Preoperational - 2 to 7- egocentric and illogical, animism,
-Concrete operational - 7 to 11 thinking is more logical, conservation
-Formal Operational - 12 and on, development of abstract thinking and metacognition
4 stages of adolescent identity formation
- Identity diffusion
- Moratorium
- Foreclosure
- Identity Achievement
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development

how many stages are there
What are they?
Heteronomous Morality (5-10) - rules are decided by authority figures and cannot be changed

Autonomous Morality (10 plus) - Children can consider more than one aspect of the situation and can consider the intent behind behavior, rules are flexible
What are Berry's four acculturation strategies?
Assimilation - dominant values adopted
Separation - cultural identity is maintained, interaction with other cultures is avoided
Integration - cultural identity is maintained and interactions with other cultures occur
Marginalization - cultural identity is not maintained, interaction with other cultures is avoided
Freud's psychosexual stages
Oral - Passive Dependence (0-18 months)
Anal (18-36)-
Phallic (3-6years)
Latency (6 - puberty)
Genital (puberty and beyond)
Two types of sensory memory
iconic memory - 1/2 sec..holds images
Echoic memory - sounds up to 4 seconds
Two types of short term memory
primary memory - 30 second holding tank
Working memory - holds and manipulates imformation while you are working on it
How many items can most people keep in short term memory
7 items + or - 2 items
Chunking
PART OF SHORT TERM MEMORY

take items and group them together to help you remember thing. Like you used to do with credit card numbers at Monmouth Internet
eidetic memory
retain an image of what is seen for a long period of time
Priming
exposure to a stimulus that helps them remember it later in time. Like listening to the tapes in the hopes of remembering portions of broad areas of content
Redintigration
when something unlocks a chain of memories. Like listening to the Cure.
Flashbulb memories
memories of distinct events, usually of a traumatic nature, like 9/11
Prospective Memory
remembering that you had planned to do something a particular time
Explicit memory is also called
declarative
Implicit memory is also called
Procedural
serial position effect
delayed and immediate
Delayed recall - In a list of things to remember, after a short pause people remember things at the beginning more than the middle and end. (primacy effect)

Immediate- people remember the beginning and end and not the middle
Paramnesia
distortion of memory and involveds confabulation
episodic memory is
autobiographical
schematic memory
we create a schema for our memory.