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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 Canonical Correlation is used to determine the relationship between two or more predictor variables and two or more criterion variables. A weighted composite of predictor variables is correlated with a weighted composite of criterion variables. Eta coefficient is used to determine the relationship between two variables that are related in a non-linear manner. Path analysis is used to test hypotheses about the causal relationships among three or more variables. Multiple Correlation is used to determine the relationship between two or more predictor variables and one criterion variable. If the corpus callosum is split in half in an otherwise normal person, something grasped in the left hand can be identified but not named. Information perceived on the left side of the body gets projected to the right brain (and vice versa). And the left hemisphere is responsible for most language functions (e.g., naming objects). The corpus callosum is the tract which connects the two hemispheres. So, if this is cut, the result is two parallel but non-communicating brains. Thus, if a person with a severed corpus callosum grasps something with the left hand, the information gets projected to the right hemisphere. But since the right hemisphere wouldn't communicate with the left hemisphere, the person couldn't give a name to what was grasped. Which of the following statements regarding the use of biofeedback to treat headaches is true? a) EMG Biofeedback would be more useful for tension than for migraine headaches. b) EMG Biofeedback would be more useful for migraine than for tension headaches. c) EMG Biofeedback is effective treatment for both tension and migraine headaches. d) EMG Biofeedback is ineffective treatment for both tension and migraine headaches "A" EMG Biofeedback has been shown to be useful for treating tension headaches but not migraine headaches. For migraines, thermal biofeedback is considered more effective. Some have suggested that the effectiveness of biofeedback is related to an artifact of treatment (e.g., attention, support) rather than to the biofeedback itself. Regardless of whether its effects are artifactual, EMG biofeedback seems to work better for tension than for migraine headaches. Implosive therapy combines the principles of behavior therapy with those of traditional psychodynamic therapies. It combines imaginal exposure with psychological exploration. It is used to treat phobias and other disorders in which both learned fear and psychic conflict are believed to play an etiological role. A response has been learned through avoidance conditioning. Which of the following techniques would be most useful in eliminating that avoidance response? a) Classical extinction. b) Higher-order conditioning. c) Backwards conditioning. d) Aversive conditioning The correct answer is "A". An avoidance response is established when a CS is paired with an aversive US. Eventually, the CS comes to produce a conditioned response (CR) of avoidance. To eliminate this response, the CS is presented alone. This would be an example of classical extinction of the conditioned response. Unlike job enlargement, job enrichment: a) involves giving employees greater responsibility. b) involves giving employees a greater number of job tasks. c) involves enriching the job environment by providing fringe benefits such as an exercise room. d) involves giving employees greater control over their work schedules. The Correct Answer Is A. Job enrichment involves combining several jobs into a larger job that increases the employee's overall responsibility, freedom, and self-control. Job enlargement simply involves increasing the variety or number of job tasks; it does not involve an increase in job responsibility. Catharsis (or Abreaction) From psychoanalysis, emotional release that occurs when the patient becomes fully aware of previously repressed impulses and feelings. Occurs as a result of repeated interpretations throughout therapy. Client-Centered Therapy From Rogers, it emphasizes the therapist being warm, genuine, and accurately empathic, with result that the client's potential for growth and self-actualization emerges. Through therapy, the person eventually stops basing his or her sense of self-esteem on "conditions of worth," and congruence between the ideal and real self is achieved. Accommodation According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, changes made to existing cognitive structures or schemes in order to understand new information and experiences. Anaclitic Depression (or Hospitalism) Profound depression displayed by an infant as a result of prolonged separation from his/her primary caretaker. Adverse Impact Occurs when the hiring rate for any minority group is below 80% of the hiring rate for the majority group. When adverse impact is present, the employer has the burden of proving that the employment process is not unfairly discriminatory. Assessment Centers A place where groups of candidates are given assignments which simulate work behaviors and are observed in a standardized manner. Assessment centers are usually used for selection and promotion of individuals in higher-level positions. Extinction In operant conditioning, eliminating reinforcement for a previously reinforced response, the result of which is to decrease the frequency of that response. In classical conditioning, presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) outside the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (US); the result is that the CS eventually stops eliciting a conditioned response. Aphasia Deficit in or inability to use or understand spoken, symbolic, or written language. Phenothiazines Antipsychotic drugs associated with relief of "positive" psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. Also referred to as neuroleptics. Degrees Of Freedom A value used in the calculation of values yielded by statistical hypotheses tests; reflects the number of scores that, given a fixed value (e.g., a sample mean) are "free to vary." Meta-Analysis Method of analyzing a group of independent studies with a common conceptual basis, using results from each study as the data, resulting in an effect size indicating the average difference between the treatment groups and the control groups. Criterion Referenced Tests Tests that assess how a person performed in relation to a defined external criterion. Unlike as in norm-referenced tests, the person's performance is not compared to that of others. Criterion-Related Validity A method of determining a test's validity by correlating the score from this test to some outside criterion. For example, a test of computer literacy would be shown to have criterion- related validity if people who score high do well on a job working with computers, while people who score low do poorly on a job involving work with computers.