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145 Cards in this Set

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What is the psychoanalytic explanation of personality development?
Freud believed that personality develops as a result of conflict b/n innate forces and the demands of reality.

Erikson said personality results from an interaction b/n social experience and innate factors.
What is the "learning perspective" for why people behave the way they do?
Behavior is continuous and emphasis is on quantitative change in development. Environment controls behavior.
What is the cognitive perspective for why people think the way they do?
Piaget said cognitions and thoughts develop as a result of interactions b/n biological factors and experiences with the environment. The person contributes to their own develop. through manipulating the environment.
What is the ethological perspective on why people behave the way they do?
Behaviors such as attachment develop during critical or sensitive periods and are rooted in evolution. Focus on evolution and biological bases for behavior.
What is the contextual perspective for why people develop the way they do?
Vygotsky believes people set goals for behavior within a context and success depends on appropriateness of behavior within context. Can't separate individual from environment.
What are zone of proximal development and scaffolding?
Z of pd is the level at which a child can ALMOST perform a behavior independently. Scaffolding is providing temporary support to assist the child in completing the behavior.
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative developmental change?
Qualitative development, according to stage theorists means that adults and children think in qualitatively different ways - adults process information differently than kids.
Quantitative devel. means the difference b/n adults and kids involve differences in AMOUNT of information that can be stored.
How do genetics and environment influence development?
Heredity refers to inborn genetic endowments. Environmental factors and genetic factors transect continually over time. Ex. IQ - environment matters mmore significantly in the early years.
Describe Bronfenbrenner's 5 levels of his Ecological Approach.
Microsystem - everyday environment.
Mesosystem - interax/n between 2+ microsystems.
Exosystem - interax/n b/n 2+ settings with one setting not including the person.
Macrosystem - culture, religion, politics
Chronosystem - effects of the passage of time.
what are the differences between normative and non-normative influences on development?
Normative influences are those events that occur in a similar way for most people (ex. puberty).
Non-normative factors involve unusual events that have a major impact on an individual's life (ex. death of a parent).
What is the difference between critical periods and sensitive periods.
A critical period in development is a time when an event has strong and irreversible effects on a particular developmental stage (ex Fetal alc syn) and once that period of time is gone, the effect can't be reversed. A sensitive period is when effects have a dramatic but reversible affect on development (ex. attachment).
What are the differences b/n genotype and phenotype?
Genotype refers to one's genetic makeup and the expressed and unexpressed characteristics. Phenotype refers to the observable characteristics.
What is the term used to identify chromosomes that are unrelated to sex.
What is Klinefelter's syndrome?
23rd chromo is XXY. The individual looks male (phenotypically male) but IS female (genotypically).
What is Turner's syndrome?
One sex chormosome is missing - XO. Phenotype (appearance) is F without sex hormones or gonads.
What syndrome results from having 3 chromosomes on chromosome 21?
Down's syndrome
What disorder involves a defective metabolic gene. In this disorder a special diet can prevent MR.
PKU - phenylkenonuria
T or F...
Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive disorder that causes bleeding mostly in males.
Which racial group is sickle cell anemia found mostly in and what s/s does it have?
African Americans (1/12 carry it and 1/500 get it). Deformed, fragile RBC clog blood vessels, cause anemia, pain, decreased rate of growth, increased infections. Treat with painkillers and transfusions.
What are the three phases of the prenatal period?
Germinal - first 2 weeks. Zygote implants to uterus.
Embryonic - 2 wks through 8-12wks. Rapid development of major organ systems. Almost all birth defects occur during 1st trimester.
Fetal period (12 wks - birth) - organ systems develop complexity
Prental development occurs from the top down. What is the term for this?
Malnutrition is most detrimental at which point in prenatal development?
to the FETUS, so last 2 trimesters.
Decreased growht, physical deformieites, decreased motor development, lower IQ, decreased attention, restlessness, hyper, and irritable are all s/s of what and is it reversible?
Fetal alcohol syndrome - no
Spontaneous abort, prematurity, LBW, neuro probs, decreased hd circumference, and decreased alertness and responsiveness are all s/s of what in infants?
Cocaine - "crack baby"
What causes infant death, LBW and school age problems such as decreased attention, hyperactivitiy, and decreased IQ?
Nicotine in mother's system
What are each of the following reflexes:
moro, rooting, babinski, grasp
Moro - acrh back and extend limbs to startle
Rooting - stroke cheek and baby will turn head and suckle
Babinski - stroke foot and toes spread and foot twists
Grasp ref - place object in hand and baby will make a fist
Describe when each sense begins to develop and describe.
Touch - 1st sense to develop.
Taste - inherrently like sweet (and maybe salty too). Signs of preference in utero.
Hearing - well developed at birth
Smell - well developed at birth - babies can differentiate mom's milk from other
Vision - peripheral at birth but rapid increase w/in 2-10 weeks and 20/20 vision by 6 mos-2years.
What is cross model fluency?
The ability after 2-3 weeks to imitate facial expressions. After 2 months it becomes known as social smile.
What happens at each developmental point...
6 wks, 2-3 mos, 6-7 mos, 7-8 mos (two things), 11 mos, 11-13 mos, 16 mos, 24 mos.
6wks (keep head erect), 2-3 mos(roll over), 6-7 mos (sit alone), 7-8 mos (crawl and then stand with support), 11 mos (stand alone), 11-13 mos (walk alone), 16 mos (walk up steps), 24 mos (toilet training begins.
What is the rate of brain development from prenatal to age 5.
Prenatally-2years - brain is fastest growing part of body.
birth - brain is 1/4 to 1/3 of adult size.
Age 2 - brain is 75% of adult size
Age 5 - 90% of adult size
What happens at age 7 or 8 that makes handedness determined and language function set?
Considerable sensory integration occurs and the brain lateralizes function, so patterns become firmly estsablished.
What is significant about mid childhood in terms of brain development?
Hippocampal development finishes. By age 10 unilingual kids have difficulty speaking unaccented second language.
At what age does myelination d/c?
Myelination continues into adulthood and leads to increased processing speed, attention span, and frontal lobe functioning.
At what ages do boys and girls reach puberty?
Girls 10-12years and Boys 12-14 years
What effect does early development have on girls and on boys?
Girls - increased academic achievement, lower SE, decreased self-image, increased parental conflict.
Boys - more psych adjusted, increased school performance, increased self-image, increased popularity.
These differences disappear by grade 12.
When girls develop early and lower their academic achievement, what happens?
Increased self-image and popularity.
What is climacteric?
Man-opause - gradual decline in testosterone levels in men.
What is the maximum lifespan and what are some physical changes that gradually occur as we get older?
110-120 years. Decreased cardiac output, increased blood pressure, and decreased vision and hearing.
What are the differences between primary aging and secondary aging?
Primary ating refers to aging that involves inevitable chagnes in physical and mental processes due to genetic processes and normal wear and tear. Secondary aging results from disease, disuse, and neglect.
1. HOw does sex drive change with aging? 2. What is older adult sexual activity frequency most highly correlated with? 3. Until what age can men and women have sex? What is the primary barrier to sex in old age for women?
1. Sex drive does not decrease with age. 2. Sexual activity at a younger age. 3. Women can have sex as long as they live and men typically can have sex well into their 70's and 80's. 4. Lack of partner
Describe the Health Belief Model?
Health behavior results from joint influence of psychosocial factors, percieved susceptibility of dz., and perceived benefit vs/ perceived barriers.
What is the riskiest health related behavior for premature death?
What other factors affect late life health?
Overeating, lack of exercise, lack of balanced diet.
What racial group lives the longest?
What is the social buffer hypothesis?
Perception of adequate social network can reduce the risk of emotional distress.
How does language progress and develop starting with crying and then cooing at 3 mos.
Babble (6-10mos), then comprehension (9-10 mos.), then echo (9-10 mos), then holophrasic thought (single words or syllabi; 12-18 mos), then by 15mos 10 different words, and by 18 mos a vocabulary of about 50 words, and by 18-24 mos telegraphic speech (2+ words that express an idea).
There are three theories of language development...what are they?
Nativist view (Chomsky) - innage language acquisition device (LAD).
Nurturist view - language is acquired by imitation and reinforcement.
Interactionist view - combination of nature and nurture.
"Motherese" occurs in which cultures.
It occurs across all languages. Also, mothers talk to daughters more which is why girls may be more advanced linguistically than boys.
What is the Sapir Whorf Hypothesis?
Language influences how we think (think of Tam at the Buddhist temple trying to translate the fortunes - for some concepts there was no translation)
What is dyslexia?
A reading disorder where the person has difficulty matching speech sound with written words. More common in low SES and large families. Equally as common in boys as girls.
What are each of the different types of dyslexia?
Deep, surface, phonological, neglect
Deep dyslexia - reads a given word as one with a similar meaning. (read coat for jacket).
Surface dyslexia - can't recognize words. Needs to sound out words.
Phonological - can't read gibberish wrods
Neglect - misread 1st or last 1/2 of word.
Piaget used an "idiographic approach" to research, which means what?
He studied a small # of kids intensely.
Piaget's theory says growth and development are epigenesis, which means what?
Growth and development occur in stages and stages build on each other. He also said that kids and adults are qualitatively different in how they think.
Cognitive development is the result of 3 principles, what are they and describe?
1. Organization - development of increasingly complex systems of knowledge. Creation of schemata.
2. Adaptation - the way a person deals with new information. Involves changing schemata through assimilation and accomodation.
3. Equilibration - need for and striving for equilibrium. Imbalance determines the extent to which a child uses assimilation and accomodation to adapt to new experience.
What are Piaget's 4 stages of thought? (Rates vary and decalage is common)
1. Sensorimotor (birth - 2) - increase control of motor function thru interaction with environ. Object permanence.
2. Pre-operational stage (2-7 yrs) - increased use of symbols and language. Characterized by intuitive thinking, egocentrism, phonemenalistic causality, animism, irreversibility, and centration.
3. Concrete-Operational Stage (7-11) - can attend to a wide array of info and its logical, serial, and dimensional.
4. Formal operational stage (11-18) - abstract concepts and ability for deductive reason. Also metacognition develops.
One key concept to Piaget's theory is constructivism, which refers to what?
New knowledge is based on previously learned material.
Who is more influential on cognitive development parents or peers?
Peers because parents may be too cognitively advanced.
There are two criticisms of Piaget's work, what are they/
He may have underestimated kids abilities. Decreased emphasis on culture and educational background.
What does the information processing theory say about cognitive development?
As kids age, memory improves as a result of gradual and more effective use of memory such as rehearsal and use of mnemonics. And more effective problem solving comes with age and experience.
While Piaget's theory had a qualitative view of cognitive development, information processing is quantitative, which means what?
Enhanced cognitive capacities of adolescents result from a larger foundation of information, betters kills acquired, more thorough scanning, flaxible use of learning strategies and enhanced ability to self-monitor.
According to information processing, why does cognitive capacity improve as kids age?
They acquire more effective strategies for learning such as rehearsal and mnemonics. They also learn more effective ways of problem solving. They also have a larger foundation of information, better skills in discerning isomorphs, more thorough scanning, flexible use of lerning strategies, and enhanced ability to self-monitor.
What attitudes and behaviors are typical of adolscents due to inexperience with abstract thought according to Elkind?
Finding fault with authority, argumenativeness, indecisiveness, hypocrisy, self-consciousness, and sense of invulnerability
"Personal Fable" and "Imaginary Audience" are two more cognitive qualities of adolescents...what are these?
PF: belief that they are somehow special.
IA: assume everyone is thinking the same way they are
____ intelligence improves with age and ___ intelligence peaks in adolescence and declines in 30's and 40's.
Crystallized & Fluid
What is the Classic Aging Pattern?
Performance skills (capacity for prob solving in novel situations) decline and verbal skills (overlearned skills) remain intact.
Overall ___ in CNS speed causes ___ in process speed and ___ in sensory ability.
Decrease, decrease, decrease
With attention... older adults do well on ___ attention tasks but have problems with ___ attention tasks.
simple, complex
What happens with higher order cognitive processes in older adults?
In a lab setting they decrease but in real world settings older adults can outperform younger adults in problem solving, reasoning, conceptualization, and planning.
Primary memory and working memory are part of what? What happens with working memory as adults age?
Short term memory. Primary memory is the holding tank for small amounts of info. Working memory briefly holds and manipulates info. Declines
What are the three types of long term memory?
Episodic - events or memories in context.
Semantic - knowledge of facts and meanings.
Procedural - memory for motor skills.
One hypothesis for memory problems associated with aging is that there are problems with ___ and ___.
encoding, retrieval
What are the physiological explanations for decline in memory?
1. atrophy of hippocampus
2. Decreased activity of acetylcholine, serotonine, and catecholamines.
3. Toxic effects of endogenous amino acids
What are the stages of moral development according to Piaget?
1. Heteronomous morality (ages 5-10) - morality of constraint. Rules must be followed.
2. Autonomous morality (10+) - morality of cooperation. There is not one unchangeable standard of right/wrong.
What are Kohlberg's three stages of moral development?
1. Preconventional - (4-10) - Stage 1 Punish/obedience: follow rules to avoid punishment. Stage 2 instrumental/hedonism: follow rules to get reward.
2. Conventional MOrality (10+) - Stage 1 Good girl/good boy: concern for gaining approval thru obedience. Stage 2 Law & Order: focus on doing one's duty.
3. Postconventional (13+) - Stage 1 Morality of Contract: emphasizes value of the will of the majority. Stage 2 Indiv. Principles of Conscience: morality based on what indiv. believes is right.
What are criticisms of Kohlberg's work?
Not culturally sensitive, bias that individualism is best.
Carol Gilligan said men have ___ perspective of morality and women have ___ perspective of morality.
Justice, caring
According to Gilligan, what are three stages of moral development?
1. Individual survival is priority.
2. Self-sacrifice becomes priority.
3. Non-violence - no one should suffer, including the self.
What are Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development?
0-1 yrs - oral stage
1-3 anal stage
3-5/6 phallic stage
5/6-12 latency
12-18 genital
What are Erikson's 8 stages?
Trust vs. mistrust => hope
Autonomy vs. shame => will
Initiative vs. guilt => purpose
Industry vs. inferiority => competence
Identity vs. role confusion => fidelity
Intimacy vs. Isolation => love
Generativity vs. stagnation => care
Integrity vs. despair => wisdom
What are the stages of separation/individuation according to Margaret Mahler?
5-10 mos. Differentiation
10-16 mos. practicing
16-24 mos. rapproachment
24-36 mos. consolidation and object constancy
What are Levinson's stages of development? He wrote Season's of a Man's Life.
1. Early adult transition (17-22) - starts to change the sense of self of childhood.
2. Entering adult world (22-28) - consolidates choices made in transition.
3. Age 30 transition (28-33) - establsh patterns of adult life.
4. Settle down (38-40) - commits to adulthood.
5. Mid-life trans (40-45) - shift from time since birth to death.
6. Mid adulthood (45-50)- relinquish the perspective of early adulthood.
7. Age 50 trans
8. Late adulthood - retirement and death
What was Conrad Lorenz's contribution regarding attachment?
Ethological studies showed that nonhuman primates demonstrated attach behavior. Imprinting study - certain stimuli are capable of eliciting innate behaviors during critical period. Ex. ducklings
What was Harry Harlow's contribution to attachment?
Tactile sensation is strong influence on attach. Wire vs. terry cloth monkey mothers.
Also monkeys reared in isolation showed Autistic s/s but when returned to normal social environment, these traits remissed.
What did John Bowlby contribute?
Newborns are equipped with verbal and non-verbal behaviors that elicit nurturing from adults.
Bowlby's Syndrome of Maternal Deprivation?
Protest => despair => detachment (becomes indifferent to mom).
What is "anaclytic depression?"
Rene Spitz said this type of depression involved weepiness, w/d, and insomnia.
Mary Ainsworth assessed 4 types of attachment style with a procedure called "Strange Situation Procedure." What did this involve?
At one year of age, have mother leave the room and then return after some time. Child's behavior indicates the type of attachment style he/she and mother have.
What happens with Secure Attachmetn?
65% of babies. Seek closeness with mom when with strangers, moderate distress when mom leaves, greets mom with enthusiasm when she returns. Kids are cooperative, free of anger. Parent style is sensitive and responsive.
What happens with avoidant attachemtn?
20% of kids. Do not seek closeness with mom, no cry when she leaves, ignore her upon return. Kids are angry and parent style is aloof, distant, intrusive, and overstimulated.
What happens with ambivalent attachment style?
10% of kids. Vacillate b/n seek and shunning mom, upset when mom leaves, and upon return they seek contact while kicking and squirming. Kids are hard to comfort and do not explore much, and parent style is inconsistent and insensitive.
What is disorganized-disoriented attachment?
Least secure. Inconsistent interaction with mom. Typical with abuse or unresolved abusre issue of caregiver.
By age two, those with more secure attachment are...
more competent and autonomous and not usually victims or perpetrators of bullying.
Baumrind proposed 3 types of parenting, what are they?
Authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative.
Which of them expect unquestioned obedience, are demanding, controlling, threatening, and punishing. How do these kids turn out?
Authoritarian. Moody, irritable, discontented, w/d, distrustful, and aggressive.
Which type of parents value self-expression and self-regulation. What are the two sub-types of this style? How do these kids turn out?
Permissive. Permissive indulgent kids become impulsive and immature and out of control. Permissive indifferent kids develop poor self-control, are demanding, minimally compliant and have poor interpersonal skills.
Which style is caring, emotionally available, firm, fair, and reasonable? How do these kids turn out?
Authoritative. Kids become competent, confident, independent, cooperative, and at ease in social situations.
Cross cultural research suggests the key variable that affects outcome of parent style is ___ vs. ___.
Warmth vs. rejection.
Children of working mothers tend to have more ___ views of sex roles than kids of stay-at-home moms.
Mid class boys have __ academic performance when mom works.
___ SES boys do better academically when at daycare.
T/F... Attachment is not affected by working mom.
Kids in day care are ... as compared to kids not in day care.
more socially adjusted, self confident, and persistent. But also more disobedient, less polite, bossier, and more aggressive.
What are differences between kids of gay vs straight parents?
No differences
Kids of single parents show what differences from kids with 2-parent homes?
Lower level of academic achievement. This, however, may be due to SES.
What are the 3 stages of gener role development?
1. Gender roles (society expectations)
2. Gender Identity (perception of own gender)
3. Gender constancy (recognition that gender does not change with dress or behavior).
What is the social learning theory of gender role developmetn?
imitation and reinforcement
What is the cognitive developmental theory of gender role development?
Children develop a concept of gender and then constancy and motivates them to act like boy/girl.
What is the gender-schema theory of gender role development? Note: this is most accepted theory to date.
Children use gender as a schema to view the world. Consists of social learning and cognitive theory
What is psychoanalytic theory of gender role develop?
Emphasizes role of Oedipus complex - guilt about attraction to opposite sex parent is resolved by ID with same sex parent..."biology is destiny."
There are four stages of play... what are they?
Solitary play, parallel play (play independently next to other kids), associative play (interacts and shares toys), cooperative play (group with common goal).
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive play?
1. Repetitive play.
2. Constructive play- building or creating
3. Imaginative play - fantasy
4. Formal play - games with rules.
In preschool kids are friends with same sex and opposite sex kids... what about during latency?
Same sex peers mainly.
Quality vs. quantity...which do girls value and which do boys value?
Quality - girls
Quantity - boys
What are traits predictive of low popularity?
Unattractive, shy, poor academic performance.
What single factor accounts for delinquency?
Nature of relationship with parents.
What is the sequence that leads to delinquency?
Poor parenting => academic failure and peer rejection => decreased mood => delinquent peer group
What factors influence parenting?
SES, employment status, marital discord, divorce, parent personality, child temperament.
What is Rosenthal effect?
Expectations of teacher (or researcher) influence outcomes.
Female and male teachers have more ___ with male students and more ___ and ____ interactions with male students than female students.
interactions, negative, critical
Female and male teachers praise female students for ___ & ___ and male students for ___ and ___.
effort and cooperation; ability and achievement
Cooperative classrooms are beneficial for whom?
They are more beneficial for low ability students. They may or may not help higher ability students. They are effective in decreasing cultural bias.
Motessori schools max lerning from ___.
Sensory-motor stimuli.
James Marcia outlined 4 styles of adolescent identity formation. What are they?
1. ID achieve: actively struggle to explore options. 2. Foreclosure: commit to a goal without exploring alternatives. 3. Moratorium: active process of struggling with decisions. 4. ID diffusion: lack direction and not commited to goals.
Homicide rate is highest among whom?
African american adolescent males.
Suicide rate is highest among whom?
White adolescent males. Females attempt more frequently, but males carry to completion more frequently.
Highest rate of sex activity including STD's and pregnancy?
African American males and females.
STD's are more common in __ teens.
minority and low SES
What % of teens use condoms?
When are teens most susceptible to peer pressure?
About age 13/14 and then starts to decline.
How many teens drop out of school?
How many prisoners are HS dropouts?
How likely are HS dropouts to be unemployed?
What are the two theories of successful aging?
Activity theory - old age is fulfilling if person remains active.
Disengagement - successful aging involves a natural and graceful w/d from life (has been largely discredited).
What are gender variables associated with aging?
Older males have more social status, $$, and sexual partners. Older females have more friends, more involvement w/ family and lower income and status.
Who represents the lowest income bracket in US?
elderly females
T/F. Depression is associated with retirement.
False. Depression is associated with decreased standard of living.
What are stages of grief and loss?
1 Numbness
2. Yearning
3. Disorganization and despair
4. resolution and re-organization
What are Kubler-Ross' 5 stages of acceptance of terminal illness?
1 denial
2. anger
3 bargaining
4. depression
5. acceptance
What are the three categories of temperament described by Thomas and Chess?
1. Easy (40%) - regular, adaptable, mildly intense.
2. Difficult (10%)- moody, easily frustrated, tense and overreact
3. Slow-to-warm-up (15%) - mild responding, shy, need time to adjust.
What are emotions expressed at each of six stages from birth through age 10+?
At birth: distress, contentment, interest
By 6 mos: content, joy, surprise, interest, sadness, disgust, anger
By 7-9 mos: smile, pout
1 year: social referencing (use cues from others to deal with affective uncertainty)
2 yr: self-consciousness develops, learn to regulate emotions, object constancy, self soothe
7-10yrs: culturally universal emotions of fear, anger, disgust, surprise, joy, shame, contempt, sadness, interest.
T or F. Adolescents is not a time of turmoil.
True. There is little evidence to suggest this.
Risk factors for psychopathology?
Poverty and maternal substance abuse.
Protective factors?
High SES, health, WNL IQ, supportive family, personality, external support
Boys are more vulnerable to risk factors at what age? Girls are more vulnerable to risk factors at what age?
Boys - under age 10; girls - in teen years.
T or F. Girls possess a wider range of coping skills than boys mostly b/c they are better at forming relationships.