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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Secondary Reinforcers
reinforcers that acquire value only through experience

example = smiles and nods
Primary Reinforcers
reinforcers that reinforce everyone, all ages & cultures

example = food
Retroactive Inhibition
subsequent learning interferes with past learning, especially when the content area is similar
Premack Principle
positive reinforcement where a high-frequency behavior is used as the reinforcer for a low-frequency behavior

aka Grandma's Rule
in Classical Conditioning, subject becomes accustomed to & less responsive to an US & the US no longer elicits the UR
Absolute Threshold
minimum stimulus intensity required to produce a specific sensation

example = what wattage light bulb is needed before light is perceived
practicing or rehearsing beyond the first time info is reproduced without error

any practice is best when spaced

overlearning is most effective for concrete info

associated with improvements in both short-and long-term recall and resistance to extinction
Response Cost
type of negative punishment, involves removing a specific stimulus following a behavior to decrease that behavior
Fixed Ratio
type of intermittent reinforcement

reinforcement occurs after a certain, unchanging # of responses are emitted

example: getting paid for every 500 envelopes stuffed

Response Rate: moderate to high, subject may pause after reinforcement, especially if the ratio is large
Variable Ratio
type of intermittent reinforcement

reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable # of responses are emitted

example = slot machines

Response Rate: high, with little pause; results in greatest operant strength during acquisition; most resistant to extinction
Serial Position Effect
tendency to remember the first and last words in a list better than words in the middle

(1st words are in LTM, last words are in STM)
Deci: effects of external rewards on internal motivation
extrinsic rewards sometimes decrease intrinsic motivation

wen rewards are used to control, motivation decreases

when rewards are used to inform, motivation increases
Iconic Memory
memory for visual images
differential reinforcement of other behavior

reinforcement for every interval of time in which the target undesirable behavior does not occur
Echoic Memory
auditory sensory memory
Multistore Model of Memory
3 components:
SENSORY (retains info from all senses for a brief period)

SHORT-TERM (limited capacity & duration)

LONG-TERM (large capacity & long duration)
Contrast Effect
in operant conditioning, when 2 behaviors have been reinforced & reinforcement for 1 behavior is withheld, the still-reinforced behavior will increase

frustration has been used as an explanation
Personal Construct Theory
George Kelley - theory of personality and therapy

aka constructive alternativism

* we perceive/construe the world according to what we expect

* our expectations are based on & change with our experiences

influential in the development of narrative-constructivist approaches to therapy.
Hawthorne Effect
when research participants act differently because of the novelty of the situation and the special attention they receive as research participants
Rosenthal Effect
self-fulfilling prophecy, analogous to experimenter expectancy
Interference Theory
we remember best when we minimize interference immediately after we learn something
Schacter's 2-Factor Theory of Emotion
attributes emotion to 2 factors: physical arousal & cognitive labeling of arousal

people look to external cues to differentiate & label emotions
Cannon-Bard Theory
during perception of an emotion-provoking stimulus, the thalamus sends simultaneous signals to the body (allowing action) & to the cortex (producing an emotion)

the body's response is NOT a major factor in emotion
Selective Attention
ability to focus on 1 stimulus in the presence of distractions

declines with age (explained by interference theory)
Sapir-Wholf Hypothesis
the language people use actually shapes how they think
Fixed Interval
type of intermittent reinforcement

reinforcement occurs the 1st time the behavior is emitted after the fixed time interval has elapsed

response rate: usually low or nonexistent, increases at end of interval; easiest to extinguish
in operant conditioning, a hazard of continuous reinforcement

a reinforcer loses its value due to overuse
Variable Interval
intermittent schedule of reinforcement

reinforcement occurs after a variable, unpredictable interval of time has elapsed

Response rate - moderate & without pause
Treatment for Agoraphobia
most effective treatment = in vivo flooding

less frequent, longer exposures are best

high arousal not needed for flooding to be successful
Feature Integration Theory

used to explain how we perceive objects as complete rather than meaningless collections of features

focused visual attention is needed to see objects as complete
Weber's Law
the more intense a stimulus, the greater the increase in stimulus intensity must be for the increase to be noticed
usually used to treat acting out behaviors

punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance
Deep Dyslexia
involves several reading errors, including semantic paralexia (substituting words with similar meanings)
Surface Dyslexia
reading without comprehension due to inability to read words that are spelled irregularly

person doesn't recognize words so sounds them out (might read "comb" for "come")
Literal Alexia
can read whole words but not individual letters
Pure Alexia
"word blindness"

inability to read words, even words written by the person
Representational Memory
record of general knowledge, common sense, & skills
Episodic Memory
record of individual experiences, a continuing autobiographical reference

a subtype of explicit/declarative memory
Flashbulb Memory
vivid memories of surprising, emotional, usually traumatic events
making information to be learned meaningful

best way to retain information
Latent Learning

reinforcement is more of a factor in the performance than the learning of a response

rats explored a maze for 10 days but didn't solve it until reinforcement was offerred
Confidence Calibration
used in cognition literature to describe the degree of similarity between a person's level of confidence & their actual success
Means-End Analysis
a problem-solving technique that involves identifying goals, the current situation, & what is needed to achieve goals
Systematic Desensitization
procedure for reducing anxiety, pairs anxiety-provoking stimuli with relaxation


effects due to repeated exposure to the CS without the US (i.e., classical extinction)
pairing of incompatible responses to reduce an undesirable response
in vivo or imaginative exposure to a feared stimulus with response prevention

best treatment for phobias

classical extinction
Classical Extinction
the CS is presented repeatedly without the US until the CR (anxiety) is extinguished
Long-term Potentiation
the physiological process by which ST memories become LT memories

repeated stimulation of a synapse is thought to lead to chemical & structural changes in the dendrite of the receiving neuron, resulting in the neuron being more sensitive to stimulation
Aversive Conditioning
pairing an aversive US with a CS in hope that the UR will eventually become conditioned

US (shock) + CS (smoking) = CR (pain)

problems: high relapse rates, lack of generalization, ethical concnerns
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
reinforcers that take on value by providing access to other reinforcers

examples - money, tokens
Best way to memorize a list of words
visualize each word
Barnum Effect
tendency of people to identify with vague descriptions of themselves

example - horoscopes
Zeigarnik Effect
our tendency to remember unfinished tasks more vividly than completed tasks
Avoidance Conditioning
organism avoids an aversive stimulus by emitting the desired behavior in time
Escape Conditioning
aka, negative reinforcement

the aversive stimulus cannot be avoided, but one can get the aversive stimulus to stop by emitting the desired behavior
Cooperative Learning Classes
students of different ability levels & cultural backgrounds work together on completing projects

improves academic functioning of low-ability students

reduces cultural biases & stereotypes
Cattell-Horn-Cattell Theory of Intelligence
most empirically validated theory of intelligence, foundation of the WJIII & WISCIV

intelligence can be understood in 3 levels:
1. 'g'
2. about 10 broad cognitive abilities
3. about 70 narrow cognitive abilities
Primacy Effect
tendency for initial information to carry more weight than information received later; consistently found in studies of impression formation
Token Economy
involved system which includes reinforcement & punishment for a wide variety of behaviors, tokens can be exchanged for a variety of rewards
Health Belief Model

perceptions of vulnerability & beliefs about illness influence health behaviors

multicausal: psychosocial factors (demographics, peer pressure...), perceived susceptibility to disease, perceived seriousness of the disease, perceived benefits of preventative action, barriers to preventative action
Backward Masking
a second visual impression erases the first impression

(example: people who are briefly shown a picture of a dog and then a bright light only recall the light)
Eidetic memory
photographic memory

long duration
memory that occurs when something (e.g., a smell) unlocks a rapid chain of memories
Reciprocal Inhibition
counterconditioning, 2 incompatible responses cannot occur at the same time

includes systematic desensitization, aversive conditioning

used to treat smoking, paraphilias, phobias...
Word Association
forming words or sentences with the first letter of the items being memorized (acronyms) or making up stories that connect the items together
Method of Loci
forming a mental image of a walk through a physical location, then forming a visual image of the words on a list, putting each in a specific place
Pegword System
first memorizing a set of ten visual images that can later be pegs on which to hang ideas, then associating each image with what is to be remembered
Substitute Word Technique
breaking a word to be remembered down into parts and substituting words that are more familiar and can be visualized

example: catabolize = a cat, a ball, eyes
Localized Amnesia
The loss of memory for personal information limited to a circumscribed period of time is referred to as localized amnesia.

DSM distinguishes between five types of amnesia associated with Dissociative Amnesia – localized, selective, generalized, continuous, and systematized.