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207 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
defense mechanism involving rejection from consciousness of painful/shameful experiences
defense mechanism: disavow feelings, thoughts and needs that cause anxiety
defense mechanism: replace unacceptable urges with opposite
reaction formation, ex. aggressive impulses replaced with obsessive disorder
defense mechanism: give socially acceptable reason to explain unacceptable behavior/thought
defense mechanism: attribute unacceptable wishes to another
defense mechanism: transfer emotion for original idea/object to more acceptable/safer one
displacement; phobias
defense mechanism: stuck in stage of development had been attained, return in response to life problems can't cope with
defense mechanism: transform libidinal urges into socially-acceptable interests and activities
defense mechanism: deposit unwanted aspects of self into another individual so feel at one with object of projection
projective identification
projective identification: divide external objects into all good or all bad
defense mechanism: control of affects and impulses by way of thinking about them instead of experiencing them
defense mechanism: symbolic acting-out in reverse of something unacceptable that has already been done
steps in psychoanalysis
1. confrontation
2. clarification
3. interpretation
4. working through
Individual Psychology
1. Who
2. growth
3. maladjustment
1. Adler
2. inferiority complexes motivate to grow
3. mistaken style of life
Neofreudian -- Horney
1. basis of anxiety
2. defense
3. healthy individual
1. parent behaviors such as indifference, overprotection, rejection
2. defend against anxiety by adopt mode relating to others (move towards, move against, move away from others)
3. healthy individual uses all 3 modes
Neofreudian -- Harry Stack Sullivan
1. influences on personality development
2. modes that develop
3. causes of neurotic behavior
1.cognitive experience role in personality development
2. sequential development in infant: prototaxic, parataxic, syntaxic
3. neurotic behavioroften caused by parataxic distortions, stay in that mode, deal with others as if significant people from early life
Neofreudian -- Erich Fromm
1. influences on personality
2. character styles
3. healthy
1. societal factors -- prevent from realizing true nature
2. develop in response to society demands: receptive, exploitative, hoarding, marketing, productive
3. only productive allows realize true human nature -- creative, loving, productive
1. who
2. ego functions
1. Anna Freud, David Rappaport, Heinz Hartmann
2. emphasis ego role in personality dev, 2 functions:
ego-defensive (resolve conflict)
ego-autonomous (adaptive, non-conflict like learning)
goal of client-centered therapy, what required and what problems
realize capacity for self-actualization -- need organized self (otherwise incongruence b/w self-concept and experience)
therapist characteristics for client-centered
1. accurate empathetic understanding (same world view)
2. unconditional positive regard
3. congruence (words and action, honest)
types of pathology in existential therapy
1. normal/existential anxiety -- proportionate to cause
2. neurotic anxiety -- inability take responsibility own life
Gestalt Therapy
1. who
2. theory of personality
3. pathology
4. therapy
1. Fritz Perls
2. assume responsibility and live as whole person -- self and self-image
3. boundary disturbance -- less control self, more control by self-image
4. awareness, here-and-now, wants vs. shoulds
Reality Therapy
1. who
2. goal therapy
3. basic needs
4. outcome
1. Glasser
2. focus present behavior, realistic fulfill needs without harm self or others, take responsibility
3. basic needs:
4. success vs. failure identity
feminist object-relations theory
gender role construction
mother-child relationship --> division of labor
self-in-relation theory
type of feminist therapy
sense of self from how connect to others
mutuality -- reciprocal relationships
Beck's 3 levels of cognition role in ppath
1. automatic thoughts -- spontaneous from specific stimuli/situations
2. schemas / core beliefs / underlying assumptions -- internal models self and world
3. cognitive distortions -- errors in reasoning connect 1 and 2, process info so fit schema
cognitive therapy teach patients to (5)
1. monitor negative automatic thoughts
2. recognize connection b/w cognition, affect, behavior
3. examine evidence for/against distorted automatic thoughts
4. substitute more reality-based interpretations
5. identify and alter schemas that predispose to distort experience
cognitive techniques (4)
1. elicit automatic thoughts
2. decatastrophizing
3. reattribution
4. redefining
cognitive therapy -- behavior techniques (6)
1. homework
2. activity scheduling
3. graded task assignments
4. hypothesis testing
5. behavioral rehearsal
6. diversion techniques
ABC of RET and who
A -- experience undesirable events
B -- rational and irrational beliefs about events
C -- create appropriate emotional/behavioral consequences with rational beliefs (inappropriate with irrational)

RET methods (5)
1. direct confront irrational beliefs (musterbations)
2. contingency contracting
3. in-vivo desensitization
4. response prevention
5. psychoed
3 types stimulus control
all modify existing S-R relationship or create new one
1. narrowing -- restrict TB to limited set stimuli
2. cue strengthening -- link TB want to increase to specific cues
3. competing responses -- eliminate R's that block TB or encourage R's that block undesired TB
interaction therapy
1. focus
2. 4 concepts
1. communication therapy
2. double-bind communication
metacommunication (report and command)
symmetrical communications
complementary communications
extended family systems therapy
1. who
2. major concepts
3. 2 techniques
1. Bowen
2. differentiation, triangulation
3. genograms, triangulation by therapist
structural family therapy
1. who
2. major concepts (3)
3. goals (3)
1. Minunchin
2. directive, here and now
family structure/subystems
boundaries (emeshment/disengagement)
3. joining
create family map
restructure family
structural family therapy -- 3 strategies restructure family
1. enactment -- role play family relationships
2. reframing -- more positive terms family behavior
3. blocking -- from engage normal way, force new interactions
strategic family therapy
1. who
2. goal
3. source of family dysfunction
1. Haley
2. reduce/eliminate symptoms in family systemm by disrupt patterns problem behavior
3. dysfunction from maintain homeostasis
strategic family therapy techniques (3)
1. directives (straightforward or paradoxical)
2. reframing
3. circular questioning
Berry's Acculturation Model
1. what
2. modes (4)
1. multidimensional w/ 2 indep dimensions (vs. continuum other models)
2. integration
Minority Identity Development Model
a. who
b. stages
a. Atkinson
1. Conformity
2. Dissonance
3. Resistance and Immersion
4. Introspection
5. Synergistic Articulation and Awareness
Racial Interaction Model
1. Who
2. What
3. Interaction patterns (4)
1. Helms
2. racial identity status/stage affects how relate to one another
3. 4 interaction patterns:
White Racial Identity Model
who and steps
1. contact
2. disintegration
3. reintegration
4. pseudo-independence (re-examine beliefs)
5. immersion-emersion (try figure out how proud white w/o racist)
6. autonomy (s/w own culture, seek out cross-racial interactions)
Niegrescence Theory
1. pre-encounter
2. encounter
3. immersion-emersion
4. internalization (openness, less anti-white)
5. internalization-commitment (political active)
homosexuality identity formation (McLaughlin)
1. isolation (feel different)
2. alienation and shame (realize sexual difference)
3. rejection of self
4. passing as straight
5. consolidating a self-identity (call self)
6. acculturation (learn to be)
7. integrating self and public identity
8. pride and synthesis
Expectancy Theory job
Bloom program evaluation steps (4)
1. specify objectives
2. define parameters
3. specify techniques achieve goals
4. collect data
I/O -- ty0pes of justice (3)
Driver decision-making types (5)
path-goal theory of leadership
1. who
2. what
3. styles of leaders (4)
4. what depend on
1. House
2. various styles leaders use help meet goals
4. depends on workers and environments which leader style best
clomipramine (Anafranil)
amitryptaline (Elavil)
impiramine (Trofanil)
phenalzine (Nardil)
tranylcypromine (Parnate)
MMPI validity scales
L -- favorable light
F -- response carelessness
K -- high: clinical defensiveness fake good / low: too self-dep (use to correct scale scores)
big 5
Sternberg intelligence (3)
1. componential / analytical
2. experiential / creative
3. practical / contextual
Perkins intelligence (3)
1. neural
2. experiential
3. reflective
Guilford intelligence
120 elements
includes convergent and divergent
parts of graph for job selection
slope = differential validity

intercept = unfairness
crisis intervention (3) steps
1. formulation
2. implementation
3. termination
types rank-order (non-parametric) tests (3)
Mann-Whitney -- indep samples
Wilcox Matched -- correlated samples
Kruskal Wallis -- more than 2 groups (ANOVA)
correlation coefficient for trends
correlation coefficient both rank variables
correlation coefficients
1. 1 true dichot
2. 1 fake dichot
3. both true dichot
4. both fake dichot
P's = true dichot
1. point biseral
2. biseral
3. phi
4. tetra
Erickson stages (8)
1. trust v mistrust (B-1)
2. autonomy v s&d (1-3)
3. initiative v guilt (3-6)
4. industry v inferiority (6-P)
5. identity v ID confusion (adolesc)
6. intimacy v isolation (yound adult)
7. generativity v stagnation (mid adult
8. ego integrity v despair (old)
Brofenbrenner examples
1. microsystem -- immed setting, family, daycare
2. mesosystem -- family-daycare interconnections
3. exosystem -- parent jobs, not direct contact child
4. macrosystem -- racism, cultural factors
law of effect
response paired w/ satisfaction repeat, discomfort tend not to repeat
law of exercise (Thorndike)
response repeat in presence S becomes associated and tend to repeat in presence of (strengthen effect of satisfiers)
law of readiness Thorndike
organism must be ready to perform act before satisfying (motivational states)
delayed condition
trace conditioning
delayed = CS 1st but overlaps US (most effective)

trace = CS start and end before US
when initial CS1 and new CS2 presented at same time paired w/ US, CS2 associated is blocked and doesn't elicit CR
reciprocal inhibition
anxiety inhibited by response reciprocal (incompatible with) anxiety
similar to counterconditioning w/ additional assumption that physio mechanism (para vs. symp)
switching from continuous to intermittent reinforcement
type of reinforcement schedule with lowest rate of responses and lowest resistance to extinction
Fixed Interval -- number of responses clearly unconnected to reinforcement
type of reinforcement most resistant to extinction

rate of responses
variable ratio

fairly high and constant rate of responding
chars ratio schedules

chars variable schedules
ratio most resist extinction

variable most steady levels responding (fixed produce scallop w/ increase as close to reinf)
matching law
relative rate of responses proportionate to relative rate of reinforcement among 2 or more
presence of retrograde and anterograde amnesia in various disorders
brain concussions -- often moderate degree RA for events right before injury

more serious and rarer -- extensive RA, usually AA too

Pseudodementia -- RA w/o AA

Dissociative Amnesia -- RA w/o AA
acetylcholine ACH
1. class
2. functions (4)
3. problems (2)
1. cholinergic neurons
2. causes muscles to contract
inhibitory effect heart/respiratory muscles
brain -- role memory & learning
mediate sexual behavior and REM sleep
3. impaired voluntary movement
1. name (3)
2. functions (3)
1. norephinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
2. personality, mood and drive states
norepinephrine and dopamine disorders
depression lower norepinephrine
schizo excess dopamine nad morepinephrine
Parkinson's dopamine
personality, mood, drive states
anxiety, aggression, sleep, modulate pain, certain types obesity
1. what is it
2. what does it do
3. two problem areas
1. most common inhibitory neuron in brain
2. depressed CNS activity
3. low levels anxiety
motor region deficits -- Huntington's Chorea
1. what is it
2. function
3. problem
1. major excitatory CNS
2. memory
3. overactive brain damage from stroke
vital functions like breathing, heart rate, digestion
regulate states of arousal
connect 2 halves cerebellum
extrapramidal motor system
can result from damage to cerebellum

slurred speech, severe tremors, loss balance
reticular formation
1. what is
2. functions (2)
1. interconnected nerve cells spinal cord, hindbrain, midbrain
2. sleep, arousal, filtering irrelevant info
sensation pain/touch, control reflexes
1. maintain homeostasis
2. motivated behaviors eating, drinking, sex, aggression, maternal behavior
3. translate strong feelings into physical response
controls body circadian rhythms
Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN
3 parts basal ganglia
1. caudate nucleus
2. globus pallidus
3. putamen
amygdala 2 functions
1. emotional behavior
2. defensive/aggresive behavior
1. part of limbic system
2. inhibits emotionality
3. rat pleasure area
parts of frontal lobe (3)
1. primary motor cortext (pyramidal system)
2. Broca's area
C. Prefrontal association cortex
frontal lobe personality
depressive, apathy, lack drive
problems planning, attention
sex, language, inappropriate social behavior
temporal lobe parts (2)
primary auditory cortex
Wernicke's area
problems primary auditory cortex
deficits selective attention, hallucinations delusions, mood disturbances
oh yeah
temporal lobe functions (3)
receptive language, LT memory, emotion
temporal lobe epilepsy
deep emotions, religious
social cling
change sex behavior
parietal lobe function and cortex
touch-pressure, kinesthesia, pain
primary somatosensory cortex
parietal lobe problems (6)
1. lesions insensitive touch other side body
2. contralateral disruption of movement
3. tactile agnosia w/ contralateral hand
4. impaired spatial orientation and facial recognition
5. contralateral neglect (lose interest/knowledge side of body)
6. agraphia
damage left vs. right
left -- depression, intense anxiety

right -- apathy, indifferent, exaggerated short-lived emotion
stimulates pituitary gland
adrenal gland
secretes hormone cortisol --> convert energy stores
influenced by ACTH hormone pituitary
JND -- varies by magnitude original stimulus
exponent/power law
varies by type of stimulus
structural imaging techniques
functional imaging techniques
functional MRI
symptoms brain tumor
often depression/anxiety first
dull generalized headaches
changes vision/hearing
neuro effects like ataxia
neurotransmitters Huntington's Chorea
glutamate, ACH, GABA, dopmaine
1. what do
2. what treat
3. side effects
1. block reuptake norepinephrine, serotonin
2. vegetative/physio symptoms
panic attacks, agoraphobia, obsessive states (clomipramine OCD)
3. anticholinergic effects, cardio problems
1. treat
2. benefit
3. side effects
1. OCD, eating disorders, depression
2. more rapid effect
3. sex, gastro, headaches, initially worse sleep/anxiety
1. what do
2. what treat
3. side effects
1. block enzymes break down norepinephrine and serotonin
2. atypical depression
3. hypotension, dizziness, weight gain, headache
potentially fatal hypertensive crisis
Lithium side effects
weight gain, tremor, mild cognitive impairment, gastric
finger tremor
Bipolar esp dysphoric and rapid cycling
faster acting
Valproic acid
treat mania
fewer side effects
THey make ME Crazy HAL
side effects antipsychotics
anticholinergic and extrapyramidal side effects
tardive dyskensia
new antipsychotic
not tardive dyskinesia or other extrapyramidal side effects
1. main use
2. types
3. other uses
4. what do
5. side effects
1. antianxiety/anxiolytic
2. Valium, Xanax,
Kay Ate then and is now Happy
Klonopin, Ativan, Halicion
3. generalized anxiety/panic, insomnia, severe alcohol withdrawal, petit mal epilepsy
4. enhance activity GABA
5. side effects drowsy, weight gain, gastric, motor disturbances, sex
1. names
2. use
3. new uses
4. what do
5. danger
1. PAS them AL
Pentothal, Amytal, Seconal
2. no more use anxiety b/c others safer
3. Ambobartial acute management agitated patients
Thiopental anethetic
4. interrupt impulses to RAS
5. addictive, suicide drug
1. name
2. use
3. what do
1. Inderal
2. hypertension, some anxiety -- especially performance, but physical vs. cognitive/psychic symptoms
Relationship reliability coefficients and criterion-related validity coefficient
validity coefficient can be no larger than the square root of the product of the reliabilities criterion and predictor
Correction for guessing formula – resulting distribution?
resulting distribution has lower mean and larger SD
IRT advantages (vs classical test theory) (3)
item parameters are sample invariant
scores for different tests/sets of test items can be equated
facilitates development of computer-adaptive tests
Split-half reliability – error?
content sampling primary source of error
determine relative worth of jobs to set wages
Job evaluation
relationship between age and job satisfaction
Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model
1. what
2. types
1. leader’s style should match employee’s maturity
LAbl & LResp = telling (HTask & LRelat)

LAbl & HResp = selling (HTask & HRelat)

HAbl & LResp = participating (LTask & HRelat)

HAbl & HResp = (LTask & LRelat) delegating
Decision tree determine leadership style -- types and who
autocratic, consultative, group

– Vroom, Yetton, Jago
Social loafing most likely when
group is large and task is additive (vs. compensatory)
loss of autobiographical history
functional amensia
steps stress inoculation
1. education
2. learning and rehearsal
3. practice
Alzheimer’s progressive – types of amenesia
start with anterograde, worsens and begin exhibit retrograde
IPT target problem areas (4)
Role disputes
Role transitions
Interpersonal deficits
reciprocal determinism =
Bandura social learning theory
gender identity development
gender identity -- label (9mos - 3yrs)
gender stability -- same over time (4 yrs)
gender consistency -- same over external change (hairstyle) (4-7 yrs)
anxious/avoidant attachment
no distress mom leaves
avoid mom returns

mom is rejecting
extreme distress mom leaves
ambivalent mom returns -- seeks contact but won't be soothed

parent inconsistent
combo avoid/resist
avoid mom sometimes
wants to be close other times
research on increase in pay
increases productivity -- more in quantity vs. quality
goal-setting theory -- ideal goal difficulty
more difficulty, more motivation as long as goal accepted
3 requirements parametric stats
1. normal distribution
2. homogeneity of variance (of groups)
3. indep of observations (score 1 not affected by score of other participant)
coefficient of determination
amount score on variable y predicted by score on variable x
multiple regression
proportion of variance explained by several X's to predict Y
SEM circular relationships
organizational change strategies (3)
empirical-rational (info benefit self and company)
decision making models
rational-economic (maximizing)
Simon's administrative model (satisficing)
management by objective goal setting works best for
low education
low need for achievement
standard error of measurement
SD x sqrt(1 - rxx)
fact witness
no opinion
split brain
sensory info to opp hemp

once in hemp, need corpus collosum to get to other side
prospect -- can't recognize faces
I-no-so bad
can't recognize own deficits
Neo-Freudians (3)
1. Horney -- parent behaviors, move toward/against/away others
2. HS Sullivan -- prototaxic, parataxic (neurotic), syntaxic
3. Fromm -- society keeps from productive nature
build more adaptive defenses
object-relations negative outcome
split reps of other people -- sometimes all good, other times all bad
self psychology
type of object-relations
child narcissism thwarted --> develop grandiose self to protect
Gestalt Psychology
1. who
2. what
1. Perls
2. self vs. self-image
boundary disturbances -- OK to use if aware
goal awareness, hear and now
reality therapy 2 outcomes
1. take responsibility for actions
2. success ID = meet needs responsibly, w/o hurt other's rights
transactional analysis
who and what
child, parent, adult ego states
scripts of strokes
Life positions -I'm Ok, you're OK
transactions b/w ego states -- complementary, crossed, ulterior (games)
family systems
END result same
no matter where enter system
pattern matters, not topic of argument
family systems
1 cause different POTENTIAL results
negative feedback
maintains homeostasis
dad yell child misbehave
positive feedback
encourage change
disrupt homeostasis
mom at home gets job
Minuchin types of triangles
1. triangulation = each parent what kid side w/ him/her
2. detouring = reinforce child deviant behavior b/c focus off parent problems
3. stable coalition = 1 parent w/ child against other parent
client variables and therapy outcomes
better predictors, specifically
developing motivation during therapy
both clear on goals
ego strength
moderate expectations
what accts for large proportion of treatment outcome variance?
working alliance
reinforcement schedules
ratio = # REsponses

interval (IT) = time
sleep hallucinations
pomp = wake up halluc

gog = go to bed halluc
anticholinergic effects
1. what
2. list
1. side effects tricylics
2. dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, nasal congestion
types aphasia 3
1. Wernicke's -- problem understanding and have fluent speech but no meaning
2. Conduction -- OK speak and understand but CAN'T repeat what hear
3. Broca -- nonfluent, slow speech
problem of high correlation among predictors in regression
canonical correlation
more than one CRITERION and predictor in MR
discriminate functional analysis
predict which criterion GROUP will belong (vs. MR predict criterion SCORE) using scores on variables

need differential validity (each predictor different correlation w/ each criterion)
logistical regression
when assumptions not met for discriminate function analysis
stratified random sampling
randomly sample from several subgroups so proportionate representation of each
cluster sampling
unit = naturally occurring group
study city, pick blocks randomly, study all people in chosen blocks
intact groups
correlational research and internal validity
has none
levels of measurement
= (X-M)/SD

score minus mean divided by SD
sampling error
different between sample value (statistic) and population value (parameter)
Standard Error of Mean
= sd/(sqrt N)
1. 1 sample t-test
2. independent samples t-test
3. correlation samples t-test
1. N-1
2. N-2
3. N-1, N = pairs of scores
4. df(b) = K-1
df(w) = N-K
K = # groups
minimize type 1 error
posthoc comparison
posthoc comparison
only pairwise
types comparisons after ANOVA
posthoc vs. apriori

pairwise vs. complex
1-way ANOVA for repeated measures
all subjects got all levels IV
or more than 2 matched groups
1. df
2. expected frequency for each cell
1. one-sample df = C-1
multiple-sample df = (C-1)(R-1)

2. F(e) = (column total x row total)/(total N)
contingency correlation
2 nominal variables
regression assumptions
1. linear relationship x and y
2. error scores normal distribution and mean = 0
3. correlation b/w error scores and criterion scores 0
4. relationship b/w error scores and criterion scores homoscedastic
dummy codes
use regression instead of ANOVA
Central Limit Theorem
1. as sample size increases, shape sampling distribution of means approaches normal shape (even if pop distribution not normal)
2. mean sampling distribution = mean of population
variance of sampling distribution
less variability than population distribution

SD = standard error of the mean
proportion of variance int est attributable to factors
square factor loadings and add together
can only do w/ orthogonal factors
unique variance of test
true specific variance plus error variance
PCA vs. factor analysis
1. factor = principal component or eigenvector
2. total variance = explained and error (no h2 vs. u2)
3. factors always uncorrelated
assumptions item response theory
1. performance on item related to estimated amount latent trait being measured (can compare scores of people tested w/ different items)
2. invariance of item parameters (results of testing sample free)
3. can compare total test scores of sample to proportion who answered each item correctly
p level
item difficulty
% got item right
avg difficulty level for t/f test
.75 -- halfway b/w success w/ chance and everyone getting right
scale of p level
item discrimination
= (% got right upper score group) - (% got right lower score group)

100 = max
relationship item discrimination and item difficulty
item difficulty level (p) places upper limit on item discrimination (D)

p = .5, then max D
relationship D and test reliability
higher mean D, higher reliability
other ways calculate item discrimintation
correlate w/ total test and retain high correlation items (if measure 1 trait)

correlate w/ external criterion