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48 Cards in this Set

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Social Psychology
Social Perception
Impression Formation
Primary effect: swayed by info rec'd early in an interaction. False consensus bias: tendency to overestimate degree to which beliefs and opinions of others are similar to our own.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Impression Formation
Central Traits
Asch (1946) found that CENTRAL TRAITS (of a person) that provide unique info assoc. w/large number of other characteristics carry more weight than other attributes. e.g., "warm" and "cold" rather intelligent or industrious.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Impression Formation
Schemata
organized, interconnected mental networks of info based on prev. personal and social experiences used to judge or interpret current circumstances. Pay more attn to evidence that confirms schemata; interpret new info in ways consistent w/schemata; and have better recall for schemata-consistent info. ILLUSORY CORRELATION - belief that 2 characteristics, events, or other variables related when actually not and interpreted as result of a schema that links two variables. e.g., meet politician and immediately assume dishonesty.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Impression Formation
Social Context
Rosenhan's (1973)Pseudopatient (confederate)study. Sane indv faked schizo sx and admitted afterwhich sx stopped. Pts knew indvs were sane but staff continues to dx all except one. Conclusion: behavior of others tend to be perceived in manner consistent with social environment in which they occur.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
ATTRIBUTION
process of determining or inferring why a behavior has occurred. Can be described in terms of DIMENSIONS.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
Dispositional v. Situational
Behavior attributed to actor's dispositional (internal) characteristics or to situational (external) factors. Mood, ability, and desire - dispositional attributes; characteristics of task, social situation, and physical environment - situational factors.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
Stable v. Unstable
behavior can be assumed to be result of stable, enduring factors (e.g., intelligence or personality) or unstable, temporary factors (e.g., fatigue or other transient state).
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
Specific v. Global
Specific behaviors restricted to limited number of events or circumstances; global behaviors occur in many different situations.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
Fundamental Attribution Bias
attributions we make about others reflect FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION BIAS, This occurs when we overestimate role of dispositional factors and underestimate role of situational factors. e.g., tendency to view victims as cause of their misfortune.
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Attribution of Cause
Actor-Observer Effect
Fundamental attribution bias usually does not apply to inferences we make about selves. More likely to attribute own behaviors to situational factors; this tendency to make different attributions about our behaviors and the behaviors of others referred to as ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT. We often attribute our behaviors to situational when consequences are negative but to dispositional factors when conseq. are positive.
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Affiliation
AFFILIATION considered an innate motive that contributes to initiation and mtce of interpersonal r/s; and affiliation affected by several factors incl. ANXIETY & GENDER
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Affiliation
Anxiety
Conclusion from studies: MISERY LOVES MISERABLE COMPANY
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Affiliation
Gender
Females ordinarily spend more time engaged in conversation, are more likely to talk to people of same sex, and may affiliate more than males in public places. Also evidence that female frienships depend most on verbal communication and self-disclosure, while male friendships more often develop out of shared activites.
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Attraction
Gain-Loss effect
Attraction (liking)- a special type of affiliation and affected by # of factors. e.g., we tend to like competent and intelligent people more and esp true when competent persons occasionally make small blunders. Attraction maximed when person's eval. of us is initially negative but then becomes positive. GAIN-LOSS effect likely to occur when person's change in opinion is gradual and clearly reflects a true "change of heart."
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Maintenance & Dissolution of Relationships - Social Exchange Theory
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY predicts that maintaining or desolving a r/s depends on costs and rewards of r/s: likely to stay in r/s when rewards exceed costs but leave when costs greater than rewards. Theory more predictive of r/s w/strangers, acquaintences, and business associates than of r/s w/family members and close friends b/c in latter r/s, we are much less likely to expect compensation for our contributions.
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Maintenance & Dissolution of Relationships - Equity Theory
Our perceptions of equity (fairness) in a r/s more important than magnitude of costs and rewards. R/S equitable & likely to stay in when we believe our rewards/costs (input/outcome) ratio proportional to reward/cost ratio of other person. When r/s inequitable, experience distress and may leave it. Two types of inequity: feel "underbenifitted" when our input/outcome ratio less than ratio of other person; and "overbenefitted" when our ratio is grtr than ratio of other indv.
Social Psychology
Interpersonal Relationships
Emotion in Relationships
EMOTION-IN-RELATIONSHIP MODEL proposes an innate mechanism that generates emotion in response to unexpected events that disrupt ongoing sequences of behaviors. Implication is, in close interpersonal r/s, intense emotion elicited when one partner in r/s disrupts everyday routines and interactions. (e.g., husband finds wife having affair). Model also predicts positive emotions more intense in stages of r/s when partner's behaviors still surprising and unexpected than during later stages when partner's behaviors more predictable.
Social Psychology
The Self in Social Context
Self-Perception Theory
Bem's (1972) SELF-PERCEPTION Theory proposes people identify their own internal states by observing their external behaviors and/or the context in which those behaviors occur. Theory supported by SCHACTER & SINGER (1962) "epinephrine studies" that examined perception of emotion and argue their results demonstrate that there are no physiological differences btwn emotions and that perception of emotion depends on combination of physiological arousal and cognitive label for that arousal. Research shows that in ambiguous situations, people look at cues in the external envir. to identify their internal states.
Social Psychology
The Self in Social Context
Self-Perception Theory
Overjustification Hypothesis
Predicts when external reward given to person for performing intrinsically (inherently) rewarding activity, person's intrinsic (inherent) interest in activity decereases.
Social Psychology
The Self in Social Context
Social Comparison Theory
people have an innate drive to eval. own opinions and behaviors; and in absence of objective standards, they do so by comparing opinions to those of others. often involves people who are similar in terms of attitude, performance, and other attributes. Dissimilar (downward) comparisons sometimes made esp. when eval is of an undesirable behavior or condition. e.g., when judging own level of anger, likely to compare self w/others more angry.
Social Psychology
The Self in Social Context
Self-Verification Theory
found that people w/positive self-concepts prefer to interact w/others who confirm those positive self-vews and vice-versa and that this is particularly true in close r/s. In married couples, partners w/negative self-view reported higher levels of commitment to r/s when their partner conformed their negative self-perceptions.
Social Psychology
The Self in Social Context
Self-Monitoring
According to Snyder (1987), people differ in terms of self-monitoring, or their need for and ability to manage impression that others form of them. High self-monitors most concerned about their "public self" and, conseq. strive to match their attitudes and behaviors to situation. These indv. exceptionally good at determining what behaviors, attitudes, and values socially desirable or expected in situations and at concealing own true feelings and opinions; and attempt to alter situation to match their "private self."
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Conformity
Conformity occurs when, as a result of real or imagined social pressure, a person shifts actions in a way so that they correspond to those of other people. AUTOKINETIC EFFECT - perceptual phenomenon in which stationary point of light appears to move in darkened room. When participants alone and making estimates, estimates varied, but in group, "convergence effect" occurred and estimates usually conformed to group norm. Conclusion: conformity to group norms occur even when stimulus is unambiguous and that conformity affected by several factors. e.g., person LESS LIKELY TO CONFORM when only one group member disagrees with group norm or when a person can express opinion anonymously.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Obedience to Authority
Milgram (1963). If teacher close to learner, more likely to disobey experiementer. If experimenter gives orders by phone, teacher more likely to disobey.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Bases of Social Power
Six Bases of Social Power
COERCIVE: influencing agent has control over punishments
REWARD: influencing agent has control over valued rewards and resources.
EXPERT: influencing agent believed to have superior ability, skills, or knowledge
REFERENT: target attracted to, likes, or identifies w/influencing agent.
LEGITIMATE: target believes influencing agent has legitimate authority.
INFORMATIONAL: influencing agent possesses specific info needed by target person.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Bases of Social Power
Person's ability to influence someone often the result of two or more bases of power and the more varied indv. sources of power, the greater the ability to influence others.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Social Power - Effects on Behavior
COMPLIANCE: occurs when person changes behavior in order to obtain reward or to avoid punishment. Compliance is public and does not involve private change in opinions and attitudes. IDENTIFICATION: ocurs when person changes behavior b/c wants to be liked by or identified w/another person. In this case, behavior change refelcts private change in opinion or attitude but change is maintained only as long as person continues to like or admire influencing agent.
INTERPERSONALIZATION: occurs when indv. changes behavior b/c actually privately accepts beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors of another person.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Social Power - Effects on Behavior
Bases of social power have different effects: Reward and coercive power lead to most superficial response (compliance); referent power likely to produce identification; expert, legitimate, and informational power likely to result in internalization.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Minority Influence
Mascovici (1985) Argues that to influence other members of group, member or members holding minority positions must adopt different strategies than those who agree w/majority opinion. Minority starts out appearing "deviant, incompetent, unreasonable, unappealing, and unattractive" and must maintain consistent position to remain clear, firm, and confident w/o appearing rigid or dogmatic. People often comply w/majority for normative reasons (e.g., to be liked or to avoid punishment) but comply w/minority for informational reasons (e.g., b/c minority causes re-evaluation of beliefs). Result of minority influence likely to be real change in attitudes, beliefs and behaviors rather than mere compliance, which often occurs when change is due to minority influence.
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Psychological Resactance
Brehm (1972) theory predicts that when an attempt at social influence cause person to feel loss of personal freedom, person may repsond by acting opposite of what is desired. Example of psychological reactance provided by Worchel, Arnold and Baker (1975) who found that potential audience of censured message reacted to censorship by exhibiting greater desire to hear message and by changing their attitude in direction of position advocated by message.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Attitudes and Behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior
Attitudes a better predictors of behaviors under certain conditions. Ajzen's (1991) THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR states attitudes r accurate predictors when attitude measure assesses all 3 components of behavioal intention - i.e., person's attitude toward engaging in the behavior; what the person believes other people think should be done; and the person's perceived behavioral control.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors Influ. Attitude Chng
Communicator Characteristics
CREDIBILITY identified as key to attitude change and more persuasive. Difference btwn high- and low-credible communicators declines over time as the attitude change produced by high-credible communicator decreases and the attitude change by low-credible communicator increases. This "sleeper effect" occrrs b/c over time, people tend to remember message but forget its source. TRUSTWORTHINESS which depends on communicator's motives contributes to communicator's credibility. Communicators considered more trustworthy if arguing against own best interests than if they have something to be gained by being persuasive.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors Influ. Attitude Chng
Characteristics of Communication -- Level of Discrepancy
LEVEL OF DISCREPANCY - change in attitude greatest when level of discrepancy btwn positions of recipient and communication is in moderate range. Precise point at which most attitude change occurs varies for diff. levels of communicator credibility, but - as communicator's credibility increases, a larger discrepancy associated w/most attitude change.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors Influ. Attitude Chng
Characteristics of Communication -- Order of Presentation
ORDER of PRESENTATION: when both sides of argument to be presented, PRIMACY EFFECT occurs if 2nd communication immediately follows 1st and meas. of sttitude chng taken at later time. RECENCY EFFECT more likely when period of time btwn communications and attitude meas administered immed. after 2nd communication.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors Influ. Attitude Chng
Characteristics of Communication -- Accidental Messages
ACCIDENTAL MESSAGE (message accidentally overheard by recipient) more likely than intentional message to induce attitude change. Communicator perceived as more trustworthy when message overheard.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors Influ. Attitude Chng
Characteristics of Audience
Certain recipients more susceptible to persuasion. e.g., people w/lower levels of intelligence, those w/either low or high self-esteem, and those in teens or early 20s tend to be more easily persuaded.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Festinger's (1957) theory predicts when people have 2 incompatible cognitions, they experience dissonance, that they attempt to relieve using one of several methods. For instance, in some situations, people change attitudes or behaviors; in others, may add consonant info or downplay importance of inconsistency.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The more that people suffer for something, the more positively they evaluate it. e.g., one study found college women who underwent severe initiation for what turned out to be a dull group said they liked the group more than women who underwent a mild initiation. People often experience discomfort after choosing btwn 2 alternatives; and to reduce post-decisional dissonance, change eval of 2 choices: typically increase value (attractiveness) of chosen alternative and decrease value of unchosen alternative.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Forced Compliance: requires people to behave in ways counter to their private attitudes. paid $1 or $20 to say experiment was interesting. Those pd $1 said it was interesting, those pd $20 said it was boring. Insufficient justification for lying.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Elaboration Likelihood Model
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL predicts persuasion can occur in 1-2 ways: Persuasion can involve the "central route," that is likely when listener finds message interesting, important, or personally relevant and/or is in a neutral or slightly negative mood. Alternatively, persuasion can involve the "peripheral route" which is likely when listener finds message uninteresting or uninvolving and/or depends on quantity (versus quality) of arguments and on presence of persuasive cues such as attractiveness and status of communicator. Tho both routes produce same amt. of attitude change, central route produces change more enduring and most resistent to future attempts at persuasion.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Social Judgment Theory
Three categories of judgment used to eval. persuasive messages - latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection. Most persuaded when message within latitude of acceptance (all positions on topic considered acceptable). Size of 3 latitudes affected by level of ego-involvement: the more-ego-involved with topic, the larger latitude of rejection and the smaller latitude of acceptance and non-commitment. Also more likely to change attitude when there is a small to moderate discrepancy btwn initial position and position advocated by message.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Attitude Change
Resistance to Persuasion
Better able to resist persuasive communication when inoculated against it. ATTITUDE INOCULATION compares supportive and refutional (inoculation) defenses to a persuasive message: supportive group hears arguments consistent w/their own position prior to hearing a persuasive message; refutational group hears arguments against their position along w/weal counterarguments. Conclusion: inoculated participants better able to resist persuasion.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Aggression
Definition
Aggression: any form of behavior dirested toward goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Aggression
Frustration-Aggression Hypoth.
Aggression the consequence of frustration produced whenever attainment of desired goal blocked. Purpose of aggres. behavior to eliminate block; if unable, aggress. might be displaced onto another object. Modification of hypothesis proposes: Frustration creates readiness for aggres. (anger arousal), but expression of anger requires both anger arousal and presence of appropriate exteranl (agrresive) cues.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Aggression
Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1983) describes aggres. behavior the results from observational learning (imitation - "bobo doll"). Child more likely to imitate when model is powerful, successful, liked, and/or familiar; is of same sex; and rewarded. Research on EFFECTS OF MEDIA inconsistent but major. of studies confirm viewing violence incr. aggress. Also, evidence media violence affects attitudes as well as behaviors: freq. viewing of violence linked to tendency to judge aggres, retaliation positively, overestimate likelhood of being victim of violence; greater support for harsher sentences to reduce crime.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Theories of Aggression
Soc. Lrng. Theory
Effects of Porno
EFFECTS of PORNO: research supports that people more likely to act aggress. or in other antisocial ways when they believe they can act anonymously, i.e., willing to act more agress. when disguised or in crowd. Deindv. incr. aggress. by reducing inhibitory mechanisms such as guilt and shame, fear of eval., feelings of pers. responsibility.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors that Affct Agress
Catharsis Hypothesis
Act of aggress. reduces indv's arousal level that decreases likelihood that indv. will act agress. again in the future. Research unsupportive - generally found when people act aggress. toward another, it increases negative feelings toward the person as well as the likelihood that indiv. will act agress. again in near future.
Social Psychology
Attitudes & Attitude Change
Factors that Affct Agress.
Threat of Retaliation
Often reduces aggress., esp. when it comes from person w/high status or power. When threat is coupled w/provocation, likelihood of aggress increases, tho aggress. may be displaced onto person other than provocateur.