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13 Cards in this Set

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Social Psychology
Prejudice & Discrimination
Definition of Prejudice
an attitude that consists of an affective component (prejudice). a cognitive component (stereotype), and a behavioral component (discrimination).
Social Psychology
Prejudice & Discrimination
Nature of Prejudice
Linked to authoriatrian personality, stereotyping, and perceived threat. Traditional forms of racism replaced by SYMBOLIC (MODERN) RACISM i.e., a belief that African Americans and other minorities violate such tradit. Americ. values as individualism, self-reliance, and the work ethic. Also, these indv. deny their prejudices and attribute the social and economic probs. of minority group members to internal - dispositional - factors (lack of effort and discipline); usually reject obvious forms of prejud. and discr. but oppose busing, welfare, affirm. act., and other programs designed to assist those who have been targets of discr.
Social Psychology
Prejudice & Discrimination
Nature of Prejudice
Sexism & Heterosexism
HOMOPHOBIA: coined by Weinberg (1972) refers to indv's antigay attitude and beh. Term also used to imply that it involves an irrational fear of homosexuality or psychopathology.
Heterosexism: analogous to racism and sexism and refers to "an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes among nonheterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships, or community;" heterosexism consists of indv. (psychological) and cultural components, and combination of the 2 underlies violence against lesbians and gays.
SEXUAL PREJUDICE: "negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual;" argues sexual prejud. more useful term than homopphobia since it encompasses all sexual orientations.
Herek proposes factors contributing to sexual prejud. - high level of authoritarianism, traditional beliefs about male and female roles, and acceptance of stereotypes - familar to those underlying racism, antisemitism, and other prejudices aimed at stigmatized groups.
Social Psychology
Prejudice & Discrimination
Methods for Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination
Allport (1954) argues that intergroup prejudice arises from a combination of histroical, cultural, economic, cognitive, and personality factors and proposes that since prejudice has multiple determinants, focusing only on one cause will not lead to complete understanding & resolution of prob. Various causes of prejudice internalized by indv. and thus, it is the indv who engages in discriminatory practices and who can learn to act in more egalitarian and nondiscriminatory ways. Not always necessary for FOLKWAYS )personal attitudes and beliefs) to precede STATEWAYS (legislation); proposes law againts discr. can be effective even when no pub;ic consensus.
Social Psychology
Prejudice & Discrimination
Methods for Reducing Prej. & Discr. - Contact Hypothesis
Proposes that prejudice may be reduced through contact btwn members of majority and minority groups as long as following conditions met: members of diff. groups must have equal status and power; members of the groups should be provided w/opportunities that disconfirm their negative stereotypes about members of other group; contact must be sanctioned by law, custom and other institutional supports; contact should require intergroup cooperation to achieve mutual (superordinate) goals.
Social Psychology
Prosocial Behavior
Cooperation
Robber's Cave Study: with intorduction of SUPERORDINATE GOALS, cooperative efforts to achieve goals produced produced less hostility and the development of close fiendships btwn goups. JIGSAW METHOD: each member dependent on other members for learning all parts of the jigsaw. Not only reduces ethnic stereotyping and increases attraction to members of diff. ethnic groups but also enhanced students' cooperation, self-esteem, and attitudes toward school. More beneficial for minority students but anglos do as well as or little better than if in traditional classroom.
Social Psychology
Prosocial Behavior
Bystander Apathy
Study that exposed subjects to emergency situations. Bystanders less likely to intervene in presence of others than when alone and that greater number of bystanders, the greater bystander apathy. Conclusion: bystanderst unwilling to help in emergency situations due to 3 factors:
PLURALISTIC IGNORANCE: bystanders conclude that assistance in unnecessary b/c others not offering assistance; EVALUATION APPREHENSHION: bystanders do not help b/c of fear of social disapproval; DIFFUSION of RESPONSIBILTY: bystanders don't accept personal responsibility for helping b/c they assume that others will offer help. Willingness to intervene influenced: if emergency situation non-ambiguous; bystander feels sense of responsibility for victim or feels competent to help; someone has already intervened, and emergency takes place in rural or other uncrowded envir.
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
FIELD THEORY: human behavior always function of person and physical and social environment; B=f(P, E); can be applied to # of intra- and interpersonal phenomena incl. leadership, group dynamics, and conflict.
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
Motivational Conflicts
APPROACH-APPROACH: attracted to two equally desirable goals (having to choose btwn 2 equally desirable jobs). AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE: involves two undesirable alternatives (choose btwn being laid off or paid a lower salary in company). APPROACH-AVOIDANCE: goal has positive and negative aspects (decide whether or not to accept promotion w/increase in salary but also increase in job-related stress); as one moves closer to goal, avoidance force stronger but as one moves away from goal approach force increases.
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
Zeigarnik Effect
ZEIGARNIK EFFECT: proposes memory to be better for uncompleted tasks than for completed tasks b/c uncompleted tasks create "psychic tension."
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
Crowding
CROWDING: effects of crowding depend on specific circumstances: NEGATIVE effects - crowding has little or no impact on simple tasks but can adversely affect performance on complex tasks; additionally, crowding (high residential density) linked to physical and mental problems, poor academic performance, juvinile delinquency, and higher mortality rates. POSITIVE effects - people prefer high density at footbal games, rock concerts, and similar events and tend to laugh more in high density environments. People sitting close together in movie theater less likely to feel crowded when watching arousing, attention-grabbing (violent, sexual, or humorous) film than those watching unarousing, uninteresting (documentary) film; also likely to say enjoyed arousing film when in crowded condition.
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
Crowding
Perception of control helps to cope better in crowded situation, typically experience less stress when forewarned about crouded situation or when distracted by other event. DESITY INTENSITY HYPOTHESIS: Crowding enhances positive experiences but makes unpleasant experiences even more negative
Social Psychology
The Social Environment
Field Theory
Crowding
NEED FOR PERSONAL SPACE: violations cause anxiety, irritability, and increased aggression and reduce helping behaviors. Americans generally require more space than Latin Americans, Arabs, Greeks, and the French; greater personal space required by indv w/low self-esteem or high in authroritaianism. Men usually require more space than women; males tend to be more sensitive to amd more stressed by high density and react more aggressively to crowded situations.