Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/5

Click to flip

5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lifespan Development
School Influences
Teacher Expectations & Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Rosenthal) effect
Study by Rosental and Jacobson (1968) in which they demonstrated that teachers' expectations about student achievement can have a self-fulfilling prophecy (Rosenthal) effect.
Lifespan Development
School Influences
Gender and Teacher Feedback
Recent research confirms earlier studies that found that teachers repond differently to girls and boys. Overall, boys more likley to be corrected, criticized, praised, and helped. Nature of TEACHER FEEDBACK related to children's gender: boys criticized for lack of decorum, failure to do work neatly, or inattention, and praised for intellectual accomplishments and task-related behaviors. Girls criticized for lack of ability or inadequate intellectual performance and praise for effort, cooperation and dependent behaviors. Findings hhelp to account for gender differences in academic achievement and expectations.
Lifespan Development
School Influences
Compensatory Preschool Programs
Children who attend Head Start and other Compensatory Preschool Programs for economically disadvantaged children differ intellectually from those who do not. Obtain higher scores on achievement tests, habe better attitudes toward school, and are less likely to be retained in a grade, to be placed in spec. ed, and to drop out of high school; and 25 yrs later participants exhibited variety of life successes: eg, reduced rates of teen pregnancy, delinquency, unemployment, and reliance on welfare. Effects enhanced when programs are high intensity in terms of amt. of time spent in them, are coordinated with health, housing, and other social services, and are followed by educ. support once children enter elementary school. Programs also more successful when based onformal theory and make use of carefully developed materials and procedures.
Lifespan Development
School Influences
Compensatory Preschool Programs- Montessori Method
originally developed for mentally retarded children in preschool thru high school. School is child-centered - matls and envr. designed to fit child's abilities and learning is experiential w/children reciving support and guidance from teachers that help them to adavnce at their own pace. Distinguishing feature based on assumption that learning stems from sense of perception and can be maximzed by using instructional methods designed to enhance sense discrimination (i.e., listening, touching, seeing, smelling, and tasing).
Lifespan Development
Television - Media
Influences
1/3 of children's waking life spent in front of television. Negative Effects: increases aggressive behaviors and tolerance for aggression and reinforces traditional sex-role stereotypes. Positive Effects: Sesame Street & similar shows impact vocabulary acquuisition, cognitive skills, and prosocial attitudes among preschoolers. However, children whowatch a great deal of television read less, tend to fare more poorly in school, and spend less time in family interactions. Most 3-4 yo believe they can talk to TV characters who can see into their homes; aboy age 7 children understand TV characters are actors playing roles. $-5 children believe commercials designed to entertain but by age 8 understand commercials designed to influence buying.