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22 Cards in this Set

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Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style
Baumrind (1991) combines two dimensions of parenting - responsivity (warmth) and demandingness (control) - to derive 4 parenting styles, predictive of specific personality and behavioral outcomes for children and adolescents.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style- Authoritaian
Authoritarian Parents - exhibit high degree of demandingness and low responsivity; impose absolute standards of conduct, stress obedience, and use power assertive techniques (e.g., physical punishment, threats, and deprivation) to gain compliance. Offspring often irritable, aggresive, and dependent and have limited sense of responsibility and low levels of self-esteem and academic achievement.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parent Style- Authoritative
Authoritative parents: combine rational control and responsivity. While setting clear rules and high standards for children, they rely on inductive techniques (reasoning, praise, explanations) to gain compliance and encourage independence. Offspring tend to be assertive, self-confident, socially responsible, and achievement-oriented and often obtain high grades in school.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style- Permissive
Permissive parents are warm and caring but make few demands and are nonpunitive. Offspring tend to be impulsive, self-centered, easily frustrated, and low in achievement and independence.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style - Rejecting/Neglecting
Rejecting & neglecting parents exhibit low levels of responsivity and demandingness and may be overly hostile toward their children. Offspring have low self-esteem and are often impulsive, moody and agressive. Note that characteristics of rejecting/neglecting parents resemble those predictive of juvenile delinquency - i.e, research found that parental lack of supervision and inconsistent (or harsh) punishment are highly correlated with adolescent delinquency and involvement with antisocial friends.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style - Resarch
Evidence that effects of parenting style moderated by child's temperment. Number of studies linked authoritative parenting - especially encouragement of empathy and the use of inductive techniques - to conscience development and other aspects of social responsibility. Kochanska (1991) found authoritative parenting of toddlers is much more reliable predictor of internalized conscience 6 yrs later for fearful, anxious toddlers than those who are nonfearful and nonanxious.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Parenting Style- consequences
consequences of parenting styles influenced by cultural/ethnic background: Asian Amer. adol. do well academically even thorugh parents tend to be authoritarian. Latino- and African American adol. do not do as well in school as Anglos even when their parents are authoritative, apparently b/c they receive little support from peers for academic achievement. Research shows some African American students underachieve deliberately in order to avoid being accused of "acting white."
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Family Composition
Birth Order appears to have some influence: first borns tend to have more rapid lang. acquisition, achieve higher grades in school and higher scores on IQ tests and are usually more achievement oriented and socially responsible. Later borns ofetn less cautious, have better peer r/s and more confident in social situations. Child's characteristics also affected by family size and spacing btwn sibs. E.G, larger the family ans smaller the gap btwn sibs, the lower the sibs achievemnet.
Lifespan Development
Family Influences on Personality & Behavior
Maternal Depression
Children of depressed mothers at higher risk for emotional and behavioral problems, though exact nature and severity of problems depend ongenetic predisposition and quality of early mother-child interactions. Some evidence that signs of distress (e.g., elevated heart rate and greater right frontal lobe EEG asymmetry) associated with MATERNAL DEPRESSION apparent by time infant is 3 mos old.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Gender Developemnt: Roles/Identity
Gender Roles & Identity: Gender-role development (gender typing) involves acquiring a gender identity and adopting gender-role behaviors. According to Kholberg's Cog. Dev. Theory, gender-role dev. involves sequence of stages that parallels cog. dev.: by age 2 or 3, children acquire gender identity i.e., they recognize they are eithe male or female. Soon afterwards, children realizes gender identity is stable over time (gender stability). Boys grow up to be men and girls grow up to be women. By age 6 or 7, children understand gender is constant over situations and know people cannot change gender by superficially altering their external appearance or behavior (gender constancy).
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Gender Developemnt: Roles/Identity
May be some decline in gender-role differences in late adolescence and early adulthod, distinction often reappears when adults marry. Even among "liberated" and dual-earner couples, gender gap ofetn widens when first child born and woman assumes primary responsibility for child rearing and housekeeping. Beginning in middle-age, may be some degree of gender-role reversal, with men becoming more passive, expressive, sensitive, and dependent ane women becoming more active, outgoing, independent, and competitve.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
4 Identity Statuses
Identity Crisis,introduced by Erikson,considered primary developmental task of adolescence and to be the achievement of a coherent identity. Marcia (1987) expands Erikson's view and distinguishes btwn 4 IDENTITY STATUSES (patterns) that reflect degree to which indv. experienced (or is experiencing) an identity crisis and is committed to an identity.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Status 1: Identity Diffusion
Identity Diffusion: adolescents have not yet experienced an identity crisis or explored alternatives and are not committed to an identity.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Status 2: Identity Foreclosure
Identity Foreclosure: adol.have not experienced a crisis but have adopted an identity (occupation, ideology, etc) that has been imposed by others (often same-sex parent).
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Status 3: Identity Moratorium
Identity Moratorium occurs when adol. experiences an identity crisis and actively explores alternative identites. During this period teens exhibit high degree of confusion, discontent, and rebelliousness.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Status 4: Identity Achievement
Identity Achievement: adol. who have resolved ID crisis by evaluating alternatives and committing to an ID ae "identity achieved."
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Adolescent Identity Crisis
View of adol. as a period of crisis traced to Hall (1904) proclaimed adolescence as a time of "storm ans stress" involving emotional maladjustment a nd instability. Subsequent research not totally supportive: only small proportion of adol. experience sig. distress, and rates of serious psyc. disturb. among teens (10-20%) not very different from those for younger children and adults.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Gilligan's Relational Crisis
Gilligan found that at about age 11-12, girls experience "relational crisis" in response to increasing pressure to fit cultural stereotypes about the "perfect good women." As a result, they disconnect from themselves in orer to maintain w/others. E.G., adol.experience a "loss of voice" when realizing that bwomen's opinions not highly valued. Consequences of this relational crisis include drop in academic achievement, loss of self-esteem, and increased vulnerability to psych probs. Gilligan concludes primary task for parents, teachers, and therapists is to help adol. girls maintain "healthy resistance to disconnection." (Note, Gilligan proposes that males experience similar relational crisis but do so in early childhood rather than adolescence.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Personality in Adulthood
Research investigating personality thruout lifespan focused on stability of 5 major traits - neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Costa & McCrae (1988) found no change in extraversion and openness, a slight decline in neuroticism and concientiousness and somewhat larger decrease in agreeableness. Others report and most experts agree personality is a rellatively stable characteristic.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Death & Dying
Children's Understanding
development of realistic understanding of death occurs during childhood and related to level of cog. dev. and experience. Children (3-4) don't understand death as irreversible and believe dead retain some capacities had while alive. Older children (5-9) know death is universal and irreversible but end to personify death, turning it into a "bogeyman" or" witch." By age 10, children understand end of life as a biological process and not due to outside force. Media may influence understanding of death earlier in children b/c of greater exposure to program involving death.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Death & Dying
Reaction to Dying
Anxiety about death related to age and personality. Older adults think about death more often than younger adults, anxiety about death greatest among middle-aged. Anxiety about death lower among well-adj. indv; that is people w/high self-esteem, sense of mastery and sense of purpose.
Lifespan Development
Identity Development
Death & Dying
Reactions - Terminally Ill
5 Stages: a) denial and isolation (no this isn't happening to me); b) anger (why me?); c) barganing (yes me, but not until my grandchild is born); d) acceptance (my time is close and that's alright). Subsequent studies suggest stages do not necessarily occur in order described and stages may be repeated.