Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Temperment refers to basic disposition that influences how one responds to situations; a characteristic affected by heredity and to some degree apparent at birth and predictive of later personality and adjustment.
Kagan (1989) found both a biological contribution and stability for the trait BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION. Children identified as inhibited or uninhibited at 21 mos can be similarly categorized at 5 1/2 and 7 1/2 yrs and that level of inhibition related to physiological responsivity (i.e, when faced with unfamiliar situations, inhibited children had higher heart rates, greater pupilary dilation, and larger changes in blood pressure. Evidence for stability of BI provided by studies showing inhibition in early childhood associated w/less active and less positive social r/s in young adulthood.
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Two studies distiguishes btwn 9 basic temperment qualities - activity level, rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal, adaptability, threshold of responsiveness, intensity of reaction, quality of mood, distractibility, and persistence. Most bables can be categorized on basis of these qualities as either easy, difficult, or slow-to-warm-up.
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Easy Temperment
Easy children are usually even tempered, have regular sleeping and eating patterns, adapt easily to new situations and people, and have a preponderance of positive moods.
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Difficult Temperment
Difficult children are irritable, withdraw from new situations and people, and have unpredictable habits and a preponderance of negative moods.
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Slow-to-warm-up Temperment
Slow-to-warm-up children are inactive and somewhat negative in mood and take time to adjust to new stimuli.
Lifespan Development
Basic Temperment
Goodness-Of-Fit Model
Many children categorized as difficult or easy at age 3 were rated respectively as poorly- or well-adjusted as young adults. The r/s btwn early temperment and later adjustment, however, was not perfect and based on finding, a goodness-of-fit model was developed that predicts it is the degree of match btwn parent's behavior and their child's temperment that contributes to the child's outcome. Also developed was a parent guidance intervention designed to help parents interact with their child in wqays consistent with child's temperment.
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Theory propses theid's libido (sexual energy) centers on different parts of the body during each stage of development and that personality results ways in which conflicts at beach stage are resolved. Failure to resolve conflict at any stage stems from excessive or insufficent gratification of the id's needs and can resolve in fixation at that stage.
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Oral Stage
Oral Stage (birth to 1 yr: mouth is focus of sensation and stimulation and weaning is the primary source of conflict. Fixation results in dependence, passivity, gulibility, sarcasm, and orally-focused habits (smoking, nail-biting, overating, etc.)
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Anal Stage
Anal Stage (1-3 yrs): Main issue is control of bodily wastes and conflicts stem from issues related to toilte training. Fixation produces anal retentiveness (stnginess, selfishness, obsessive-compulsive behavior) or anal expulsiveness (cruelty, destructiveness, messiness).
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Phallic Stage
Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs): Sexual energy centered in the genitals; primary task is resolution of the Oedipal conflict, marked by desire for opposite-sex parent and view of same-sex parent as rival; successful outcome results from identification with same-sex parent and development of superego. Fixation can produce phallic character involving sexual exploitation of others.
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Latency Stage
Latency Stage (6-12 yrs): libidinal energy diffuse rather than focus on any one area of the body and emphasis on developing social skills rather tahn achieving sexual gratification.
Lifespan Development
Theories of Personality Dev.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev.
Gental Stage
genital Stage (12+ yrs): Libido again centered in genitals and successful outcome occurs when sexual desire blended with affection to produce mature sexual relationships.
Lifespan Development
Personality Development
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erikson stresses role of social (vs sexual) factors and his stages of dev. ea involve different psychosocial crises. Also greater emphasis on ego than on id and assumes people basically rational and behavior due to ego functioning. Views personality dev. as process continuing thru lifespan. Crises and positive outcome associated with 8 stages of psychosocial dev.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Basic trust v Basic Mistrust
Basic Trust v. Basic Mistrust (Infancy): positive r/s w/one's primary caretaker during infancy results in sense of trust and optimism.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt (toddlerhood): sense of self (autonomy) develops out of positive interactions w/one's parents or other caregiver.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Initiative v. Guilt
Initiative v. Guilt (childhood): favorable r/s w/family members result in ability to set goals and devise and carry out plans w/o infringing on rights of others.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Industry v. Inferiority
Industry v. Inferiority (schoolage): Most important influences are people in neighborhood and school. To avoid feelings of inferiority, school-age child must master certain social and academic skills.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Intimacy v. Role Confusion
Intimacy v. Role Confusion (adolescence): Peers are dominant social influence. Positive outcome reflected in sense of personal identiy and direction for future.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Generativity v. Stagnation
Generativity v. Stagnation (middle adulthood): People one lives and works with most important. Generative person exhibits commitment to well-being of future genrations.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.- Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Dev.
Ego Integrity v. Despair
Ego Integrity v. Despair (maturation/old age): Social influence broadens to include all of "humankind." Development of wisdom (informed, detached concern w/life in the face of death) and sense of integrity require coming to terms with one's limitations and mortality.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.- Levinson's "Seasons of a Man's Life"
Levinson divides lifespan into 4 periods: infancy thru adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Transitions from one period to next particularly stressful and during these times, major changes in person's life structure usually occur.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.-
Seasons of a Man's Life
Early Adult Transition
Early Adult Transition (ages 17-22): entails leaving world of childhood and forming initial foundation for life in adult world.m Task include becoming independent from one's own parents and getting involved in college, military, enrty-level-job, etc. Transition leads to formation of The Dream, the image of ideal life that guides one's decisions and choices.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.-
Seasons of a Man's Life
The Age 30 Transition
The age 30 transition (28 to 33) brought on by realization that life structure built during one's 20s is not adequate. Sense of urgency results in pressure to fully enter the adult world, and life structure revised followed by period of "settling down."
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.-
Seasons of a Man's Life
The Mid-Life Transition
The Mid-life Transition (40 to 45) is a time of significant stress and reorganization. An imprtant change is a deflation of the Dream as one realizes one's goals are not really satisfying and/or will not be fully accomplished. Period is marked by shift in perspective from "time-since-birth" to "time-left-to-live" as a result of increasing awareness of one's mortality.
Lifespan Development
Personality Dev.-
Seasons of a Man's Life
Research
Not taotally supportive of Levinson's theory: Leveinson found that the mid-life transition evoked "tumultuous struggles within self and with the external world for 80% of the men in his sample, but other studies indicate only a minority of men & women experience a "mid-life crisis."