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12 Cards in this Set

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Theories of Cognitive Development

Piaget's Constructivism
People construct higher levels of knowledge from elements contributed by biological maturation and the environment; motivation for cog. dev. comes from drive toward cog. equilibrium (equilibration); occurs when a discrepancy btwn current understanding of world (repertoire of schemas) & reality is resolved through adaptaion.
Theories of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Constructivism
Two processes of Adaptation
ASSIMILATION - incorporation of new knoledge into existing cognitive schemas (structures).
ACCOMODATION - modification of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge.
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Piaget's Constructivism
Stages of Cog. Dev.
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to age 2: thought based on action: learns about objects through sensory information; OBJECT PERMANENCE begins around 8 mos. object exists when out of sight; CAUSALITY begins around 10 mos. certain events cause other events; SYMBOLIC thought develops around 18 mos. use of language to think about actions prior to doing it.
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Piaget's Constructivism
Stages of Cog. Dev.
Preoperational Stage
Ages 2-7: SYMBOLIC (semiotic) function-extension of symbolic thought that permits learning through use of lang., mental images, other symbols which stand for things not present - symbolic play mental problem solving.
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Piaget's Constructivism
Stages of Cog. Dev.
Preoperational Stage-limits
Precausal (transductive) reasoning: incomplete understanding of cause and effect-Magical Thinking-think about something & it happens; Animism-attrubute human characteristics to inanimate objects.
Egocentrism: inability to separate own perspective from another's perspective.
Irreversibility: can't recognize that actions can be reversed.
Centration: focus on most noteable feature-unable to conserve or understand changing one deminsion of object does not change its other-short fat glass of same liquid into tall thin glass.
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Piaget's Constructivism
Stages of Development
Concrete Operational Stage
ages 7-11): capable of mental operations; CONSERVATION depends on operations of reversibilty & decentration with conservation of numbers first, conserv. of liquid, length, weight, and then displacement volume; Piaget used HORIZONTAL DECALAGE to describe gradual acquisition of conservation abilities.
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Piaget's Constructivism
Stages of Development
Formal Operational Stage
11+ years: able to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically and thus can devel. competing hypotheses about a problem and systematicall testing hypotheses; in adolescence renewed egocentrism due to increased capacity to "think about thinking." Elkind (1984)-Adolescent Egocentrism-belief that one is unique and not subject to natural laws that govern others &belief that one is always the center of attention.
Lifespan
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Info Processing & Neo-Piagetian
Piagetians view cog. dev. as function of maturation & experience that reflects acquisition & generalization of new and better techniques to handle info and an increased abiltity to store it. Neo-Piagetians focus on specific processes (perception, memory, inference, and the use of rules; also view cog. ability as task specific & more concerned about how specific skills are used for particular tasks and contexts rather than identifying global cog. dev. principles.
Lifespan
Theories of Cog. Dev.

Vygotskyian Approach
Cog.dev. impacted more by social and cultural factors; SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY - cog. dev. first interpersonal than intrapersonal; ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT - discrepancy btwn child's current developmental level and the level of development just beyond current level but can be reached when adult/more experienced peer provides appropriuare scaffolding (temp. aids). SCAFFOLDING more effective when using modeling, providing cues, and encouraging child to think about alternative plans of action. Cog.dev facilitated when environmental demands (e.g., insrtuction) fall within the child's Zone of proximal development; symbolic (make-believe) play provides child with a zone of proximal development enabling child to practice behaviors in situation that requires less precision & accuracy than required in reality.
Lifespan
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model
Cog. and other aspects of dev. involve interactions btwn indiv. and his/her context.
Lifespan
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model - Micro & Mesosystems
ECOLOGICAL MODEL describes context as 4 nested levels: microsystem is child's immediate envr. & includes face-face r/s within home, school & neighborhood; mesosystem - interactions btwn components of microsystem (i.e., influence of family factors on behavior at school; exosystem elements in broader envr. that affect immediate envr. & includes parent's workplace, school board, community agencies, local industry & mass media; macrosystem - overarching influences as cultural beliefs and practices, economic conditions, and political ideologies.
Lifespan
Theories of Cog. Dev.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model - exo & Macrosystems
exosystem elements in broader envr. that affect immediate envr. & includes parent's workplace, school board, community agencies, local industry & mass media; macrosystem - overarching influences as cultural beliefs and practices, economic conditions, and political ideologies.