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23 Cards in this Set

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Early Developmental Milestones
rolling over = 2.8 mos
sitting alone = 5.5 mos
standing holding on = 5.8 mos
walking holding on = 9.2 mos
standing alone = 11.5 mos
walking alone = 12.1 mos
walking up stairs = 17.1 mos
Equilibration
Piaget

combination of assimilation & accommodation, motivated by a drive for order or balance

used to understand new information or event
Object Constancy
Margaret Mahler

ability to maintain mother's image when she is absent

AND

the ability to unify the good & bad aspects of the mother into a whole representation
Model of Identity Development
J.E. Marcia, 1980

DIFFUSION: not yet in crisis or exploration of identity

FORECLOSURE: commitment to an identity formulated by a parent or other influential person

MORATORIUM: identity crisis, exploring options

ACHIEVEMENT: crisis resolved by evaluating alternatives & committing to an identity
Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg

PRECONVENTIONAL (age 4-10)
1. Punishment-Obedience
2. Instrumental Hedonism

CONVENTIONAL (age 10-13)
3. Goodboy/girl Orientation (desire to be liked)
4. Law & Order Orientation

POSTCONVENTIONAL (some adults)
5. Morality of Contract, Individual Rights, & Democratically Accepted Laws
6. Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience
Centration
per Piaget, the young child's inability to focus on >1 aspect of an object (usually the most salient aspect)

occurs during preoperational stage
Kochanska et al - development of conscience
conscience develops as a result of parenting style & child temperament
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach
5 levels of environmental influence:
MICROSYSTEM: bidirectional relationships 1 has with different influential environments
MESOSYSTEM: interlocking influence of all microsystems
EXOSYSTEM: relationship between several settings, with 1 or more indirectly affecting the person
MACROSYSTEM: influence of culture, economy, etc
CHRONOSYSTEM: role of passage of time in a person's life
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
Heteronomous (age 5-10): rules are decided by authority figures, can't be changed, must be followed
Autonomous (10->): rules are flexible, agreed upon by others, can be changed if necessary
Types of memory most affected by aging
* greatest decline is in recent LTM, followed by decline in working memory

* remote LTM, memory span, & sensory memory are relatively unaffected

* episodic memory is more negatively affected than semantic or procedural memory

* some deficits in metamemory (older people less likely to use strategies)
Gilligan's Relational Crisis
at 12-13 girls respond to pressure to fit cultural stereotypes by disconnecting from themselves

girls also experience a "loss of voice" when they realize women's opinions aren't valued

consequences: drop in academic achievement, loss of self-esteem,increased vulnerability to MH problems

(males experience a similar crisis in early childhood)
Anaclitic depression
withdrawal, developmental delays, unresponsiveness due to separation from a parent (especially 6 mos -1 yr)
age that conformity to peers peaks:
14-15, children are most susceptible to positive, negative, & neutral influence
best predictor of reoffense in juvenile offenders
age at first offense

(younger the age at first offense, higher the risk of recidivism)
Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
tailored to girls, who are more influenced by caring for others; research support mixed

Level 1: Orientation of Individual Survival

Transition 1: Selfishness to Responsibility

Level 2: Goodness as self-sacrifice

Transition 2: Goodness to truth

Level 3: Morality of nonviolence
Montessori Method
based on assumption that learning stems from sense perception & can be maximized with instruction emphasizing the senses

designed for children with MR

experiential learning, child-centered, at own pace
Leading causes of death in adolescents & young adults:
1st - MVA's (36%)
2nd - homicide (but is 1st for African-Americans)
3rd - suicide (rates are increasing)
Model of Sexual Orientation Identity Development
IDENTITY CONFUSION
IDENTITY COMPARISON: feelings of alienation
IDENTITY TOLERANCE: homosexuality is tolerated
IDENTITY ACCEPTANCE: homosexuality is seen as valid
IDENTITY PRIDE: homosexuality is preferred over hetersexuality
IDENTITY SYNTHESIS: sexual orientation is integrated
Scaffolding
in Vygotsky's theory

working in the zone of proximal development, providing shaping & modeling what skills are needed for next stage of growth, when a child truly needs it
Patterson's model of delinquency
results from predictable sequence:
1. use of coercive, inconsistent discipline results in escalation & child learning to control through coercive means
2. child experiences academic failure & peer rejection
3. child becomes depressed & is more likely to join a deviant peer group
Most common nutritional problem among the elderly in the U.S.:
obesity due to overeating, lack of exercise, & lack of a balanced diet
parental attention to what sense plays the most critical role in healthy infant development?
tactile sense

e.g., Harlow's monkeys seeking comfort contact
Critical Period
specific period in the development of the organism when it is especially susceptible to positive or negative environmental influences