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30 Cards in this Set

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Accommodation
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, changes made to existing cognitive structures or schemes in order to understand new information and experiences.
Anaclitic Depression (or Hospitalism)
Profound depression displayed by an infant as a result of prolonged separation from his/her primary caretaker.
Assimilation
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the process of incorporating new objects, information, or experiences into the existing cognitive structures or schemes.
Centration
The tendency to focus on one detail of a situation to the neglect of other important features.
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development during which the child (7-12 years) displays an ability to think logically and achieves an understanding of conservation.
Conservation
According to Piaget, the understanding that certain physical properties (e.g., mass, number, and volume) do not change despite changes in physical appearance.
Conventional Morality
Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which judgment is governed by adherence to authority. Includes "good boy/good girl" and "law and order" substages. Defines the morality of most adolescents and adults.
Crystallized Abilities
Abilities that are a function of learning and experience (e.g., vocabulary, general knowledge, and math ability). Crystallized abilities, as compared to fluid abilities, show relatively little deterioration in old age.
Deviation IQ
IQ score reported in terms of a standard score with a fixed mean and standard deviation for all ages. For example, the Wechsler IQ scores, which have a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15.
Divorce, Effects Of
Research into the effects of parental divorce on children has suggested that boys are initially more adversely affected than girls and that the most adverse effects occur when divorcing parents engage in open conflict.
Ecological Model
Bronfenbrenner's ecological model distinguishes between four interacting environmental levels that range from the most proximal to the most global: Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. The microsystem is the individual's immediate environm
Formal Operational Stage
According to Piaget, the final stage of cognitive development. Characterized by the ability to think abstractly and to use logic. Begins at approximately age 12.
Identity Foreclosure
Premature commitment to an identity due to the suggestions of a parent or other person, rather than an identity crisis.
Imaginary Audience
The idea that one is always the center of other's attention. This is a common belief during adolescence.
Internal Working Models
Bowlby used the term to describe the cognitive representations that children develop of themselves and others. He believed that these models are formed during early childhood, but continue to develop over time.
Malpractice Criteria
For a successful malpractice suit, one must have the four "D s". One must show that there was a duty–-( a professional relationship), one must show that the duty was not carried out, and one mut show, that as a specific result of this, the person suffered
Montessori Teaching Method
In the Montessori classroom, children are encouraged to select their own activities; the teacher observes the children and assists them when they truly need help. There is very little didactic group teaching. The child is viewed as an active learner and e
Object Permanence
Term used by Piaget to describe a child's awareness that an object continues to exist even though it is not in view. Develops during the sensorimotor stage (ages 0-2).
Phenotype
The manifest external appearance and attributes of an organism which is affected and modified by the life situation.
Postconventional Morality
According to Kohlberg, the most advanced level of moral development, in which moral judgments are independent of personal consequences and social convention. Includes "social contract-legalistic" and "universal ethical principles" substages.
Preconventional Morality
According to Kohlberg, the first level of moral development in which moral decisions are based on whether their consequences are satisfying or unsatisfying. Includes "punishment-obedience" and "instrumental-relativistic" substages.
Preoperational Stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (ages 2-7) during which the child develops the symbolic function but is incapable of mental operations such as reversibility and conservation.
Quality Assurance Review
In the health care business, quality assurance reviews are conducted by organizations such as HMOs or independent overseers to review the quality of services provided. Unlike Utilization Reviews, they are not primarily concerned with the cost of services.
Scaffolding
The support provided to a child by others which enables him or her to learn.
Separation Anxiety
Distress due to separation from a child's primary caregiver(s). Begins at about 8 months, rises dramatically until the age of 18 months, and then gradually falls off until it becomes negligible between the ages of 24-36 months. Babies between the ages of
Stanford-Binet
Intelligence test for individuals aged 2 through adult. Yields standard age scores (mean = 100, standard deviation = 16) for the test's 15 subtests and its composite scores.
Television, Effects Of
Studies of the effect of viewing violence on television indicate that there is a short-term negative effect on most children, but that only those who are already high in aggression are influenced significantly by viewing TV-modeled aggression.
WAIS-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised)
Individual intelligence test that yields Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores (mean = 100, sd = 15) as well as scaled scores on each of the test's verbal and performance scales (mean = 10, sd = 3). Appropriate for individuals aged 16-89.
WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Third Edition)
Wechsler intelligence scales for children between the ages of 6-16 years. Yields Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores (mean = 100, sd = 15) as well as scaled scores on each of the test's verbal and performance scales (mean = 10, sd = 3).
Zone of Proximal Development
According to Vygotsky, it is the gap between what a child can currently do alone and what the child can do with assistance from an adult or more competent peer. Learning occurs most rapidly when teaching within this zone.