Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sign of Leser Trelat
Sudden eruption and progression of multiple seborrheic keratoses caused by a malignancy
Often occurs with malignant acanthosis nigricans
Sister Joseph nodule
Firm, indurated umbilical nodule usually associated with advanced, metastasizing intrabdominal cancer indicative of poor prognosis
Askin tumor
Malignant round cell tumor arising from the chest wall
Also known as extraosseous Ewing sarcoma and pPNET (peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor)
Klatskin tumor
Cholangiocarcinoma arising at the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts
Peutz Jehger syndrome
AD chromosome 19
- Freckles on lips, mouth, anus
- GI hamaratomas
- Increased risk of GI, testicular, and ovarian cancers
Kruckenburg tumor
Gastric cancer metastasis to the ovary
Characterized by signet ring cells with mucin
Rosenthal fibers
Oval or elongated eosinophilic mass believed to represent a modified astrocyte process
Occur in slowly growing astrocytomas and areas of chronic reactive gliosis
Steven-Treves syndrome
Rare, deadly cutaneous angiosarcoma that develops in long-standing chronic lymphedema of any cause including congential or post-mastectomy
Richter syndrome
Rare and aggressive type of acute adult leukemia that results from a transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia into diffuse large cell lymphoma
Lhermitte's sign
Sudden electric-like shocks extending down the spine on flexing the head
Gorlin's sign
Unusual ease in touching the tip of one's nose with the tongue
Seen in Ehlers-Danlos
Doll's eye sign
Reflex movement of the eyes in the opposite direction to that which the head is moved
Indication of functional integrity of the brainstem tegmental pathways and cranial nerves involved in eye movement
Mobius sign
Imparied ocular convergence in Graves' disease
Seeligmuller's sign
Contraction of the pupil on the affected side in facial neuralgia
Parinaud's syndrome
Parinaud's ophthalmoplegia
Paralysis of conjugate upward gaze with a lesion at the level of the superior colliculi
Bell's phenomenon is present
- Patient with peripheral facial paralysis
- Cannot close eyelids of affected wide without at the same time moving the eyeball upward and outward
Romberg's sign or symptoms
If closing the eyes increases unsteadiness of a standing patient, a loss of proprioceptive control is indicated.
Reyes' Syndrome
In young children follows acute febrile illness
Recurrent emesis within a week of onset of infection
Recovers within 1-2 days or lapses into coma with intracranial HTN
Elevated serum transaminases
Verocay bodies
"Clear" spaces outlined by opposing rows of parallel nuclei seen microscopically in neurilemomas (schwannoma)
Psammoma body
Mineralized bodies occurring in the meninges, choroid plexus, and in certain meningiomas
Composed usually of a central capillary surrounded by concentric whorls of meningocyes in various stages of hyaline change and mineralizaion
Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes
Found only in retinal embryonic tumors
Formed by a group of columnar cells with a peripheral basement membrane arranged in a radial manner around a central cavity
Gardner's Syndrome
Variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
Autosomal dominant disease
- Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) focus at 5q21
- 1 per million; FAP 1/8000
GI polyps, multiple osteomas
Skin and soft tissue tumors
Epidermoid cysts, desmoid tumors
Polyps have a 100% risk of undergoing malignant transformation
Brown-Sequard syndrome
Due to unilateral cord involvement

Ipsilateral loss
- Motor function
- Fine touch sensation

Contralateral loss
- Pain sensation
- Temperature sensation
Eponyms: Lynch I
Eponyms: Lynch I (HNPCC)

- Familial colon cancer
- - Inherited risk due to mutations that degrade self-repair capability of DNA
-- MHL1 Together with MSH2 90%
-- MSH2 Together with MHL1 90%
-- MSH6 10%
-- PMS <5%
-- PMS2 < 5%
Eponyms: Lynch II
Eponyms: Lynch II (HNPCC)

- Increased risk of GI and reproductive cancers

- Inherited risk due to mutations that degrade self-repair capability of DNA
-- MHL1 Together with MSH2 90%
-- MSH2 Together with MHL1 90%
-- MSH6 10%
-- PMS <5%
-- PMS2 < 5%
Eponyms: HBOC Syndrome
Eponyms: HBOC Syndrome

- Early age of breast cancer (< 50)
- FH of both ovarian and breast cancers
- Increased risk of bilateral disease in ovaries or breast
- AD attern of inheritance
- Increased tumors in prostate
- Increased risk
-- FH male breast cancer
-- Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry
- Due to mutations in tumor suppressor genes
-- BRCA1 on chrom 17
-- BRCA2 on chrom 13
Gorlin Syndrome
Basal cell nevus syndrome
Cutaneoumandibular polyoncosis
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Myriad basal cell nevi, odontogenic keratocyts, eerythematous pitting of palms aand soles, calcification of the cerebral falx, and frequent skeletal anomalies (esp in the ribs
Von Recklinghausen
Chromosome 17q11.2 - autosomal dominant
1/3500 live birth
Encodes neurofibromin
50% germline; 50% new mutations
PNS neurofibroms, cafe au lait spots
Optic and intracranial gliomas
Bone abnormalities
Chromosome 22
1/50,000 live births
Encodes merlin - autosomal dominant
Bilateral acoustic neuromas
Gliomas, ependymomas, meningiomas
Nelson's syndrome
Postadrenalectomy syndrome
- Hyperpigmentation
- 3rd nerve damage
- Enlarging sella turcica caused by pituitary adenomas presumably present before adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome but enlarging and symptomatic afterward
Progressive stenoses of Circle of Willis
--> successive ischemic
--> irreversible blockage of carotids as they enter skull
Hereditary and linked to chrom 17
Occurs with NF, Downs, sickel cell disease
Lisch nodules
Iris hamartomas
Occur in NF1