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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 main functions of epithelium?
Protection-stratified(skin)
Absorption- single or simple(intestines)
secretion - form glands
sensation- taste buds
contraction- myoepithelial cells
where does Epithelium get is nutrients and blood?
Underlying CT
basal Lamina
Separates basal cells from CT
all have intercellular junctions or specializations
Gives cells polarity
what three things make up the BL
Collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin
what composes the Basement Membrane
Could be 2 BL
usually BL with underlying reticular lamina
specialization of apical membrane?
Microvilli, cilia, and sterocilia (male reporductive tract)
what characterizes the lateral domain?
intercellular junction
desmosomes ( macula adherens)
spot weld to hold cells together
have intermideiate filaments
Abundant where epithelium is exposed to stress (skin)
hemidesmosome
attaches cell to Basement membrane
also abundant with physical stress
autoimmune blistering disease (bullous pemphigoid)
Antibodies attack proteins assoc with hemidesmosomes and causes blisters (detaching of basement membrane)
Gap junctions
connect adjacent cells, communication
characterized by open channels (connexons) ions and other small particles
terminal bar
made of Zonula occludens
Zonula adherans
macula adherans (Desmosomes)
Zonula occludens
make pentalaminar structure
surrounds cell and prevents diffus
Zonula adherans
wraps around cells
holds cells together
actin microfilaments
Clostridum perfringes
entertoxin attack ZO and allows fluid to move through intercellular space causes dehydration
Microvilli
Specialized for absorption
core of actin
anchored to a web or micro/intermediate filaments called terminal web
Cilia (longer than Microvilli)
cytoskeleton made of 9 doublets and central pair of microtubules (9+2)
arms are made dynein
Kartegener's syndrome
absence of dynein
respiratory infections
inmotile sperm
female can get pregnant but mainly due to peristalsis
Stereocilia
only in male reproductive tract
not involved in movement
deflection causes membrane potential
epididymis and inner ear
simple and stratified cells
single cell layers, multiple cells layers
transitional cells
only in urinary tract
characterized by DOME SHAPED CELLS
psuedostratified
looks like more than one layer but actually a single layers (columnar and cuboidal mixed)
trachea
cell shape
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
flattened
height = width
height> width
Ex of simple squamous
simple cuboidal
simple columnar
endothelial cells
ducts/tubules of kidney
duodenal epithelial cells(intestines
Stratified squamous non kerantinized
protective function
esophagus and vagina(upper cells are flattened)
Strat. squamous keratinized
skin, prevents water loss
upper cells are dead and have no nuclei
Exocrine glands
endocrine glands
duct system
bloodstream (hormones)
three types of secretion
Holocrine
Apocrine
Merocrine
holocrine
entire cell filled with secretory product, cell is shed (sebaceous and tarsal)
apocrine
apical ends filled then that part is realeased (mammory glands)
Vesicles
Merocrine
secretory cells formed, go to apical end and exocytosis (pancreas)
Ex of simple tubular gland
colon
ex of coiled tubular glands
sweat glands of skin
ex of compound acinar gland
mucous gland from larynx
dysplasia
change in size of cells (precancerous)
hyperplasia
increased number of cells (high altitude and greater red blood cells)
hypertrophy
enlarged cells
pysiological (puberty) or steroids
increased muscle demands
hypoplasia
decreased number of cells
hypotrophy
atrophy
pleomorphism
many sizes and shapes
anaplasia
dedifferentiation
old cells stay the same but new ones are less differentiated than old ones
metaplasia
change in cell type as a result of physical or chemical stress (simple ---> stratified)

acid reflux causes cell to become gastric like and secrete mucous to protect cells (Barrets Epithelium)
papilloma
benign tumor from surface epithelium
adenoma
benign tumor from glandualr epithelium
Factor affecting malignant tumors
anaplasia
mitotic activity
metastases
invasion