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42 Cards in this Set

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Two Vital Concerns of Epidemiology
1) the quality of the data
2) appropriate application of the data
Primary Source
documents or physical objects that are created or written during the course of a study.
Secondary Source
interprets and analyzes primary sources. Usually are one or more steps removed from the event.
4 questions that should be raised with respect to the quality of epidemiological data:
1. What is the nature of the data including sources and content.
2. How accessible if the data.
3. How complete is the population coverage.
4. What are the appropriate and inappropriate uses of the data.
Representativeness/External validity
the generalizability of the findings to the population the data was taken from.
Vital Events
birth, death, marriage, divorce, and fetal death.
Death certificate data includes:
1. demographic factors
2. date and location
3. Causes of death
Factors that affect the quality of epidemiologic data:
1. quality is determined by the sources used to obtain the data and how complete the data covers the reference population.
2. The quality of data affects the permissible application of the data and the types of statistical analysis that may be performed.
Public Health Surveillance
The systematic and continuous gathering of info about the occurrence of diseases and other health related phenomena.
Syndromic Surveillance
Using health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response.
Reportable or Notifiable Disease
STIs
measles
tetanus
rubella
plague
food borne illness
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
Used by the US and the state level to monitor behavioral risk factors that are related to chronic disease.
Registry
A centralized database for collection of info about a disease
Register
The document used to collect the data the information on the disease.
Life Expectancy
the number of years that a person is expected to live at any particular year.
Maternal Mortality
The number of deaths related to childbirth divided by the number of live births.
Fetal Mortality
deaths of a fetus that occur while still in uterus before delivery.
Fetal Death rate
number of deaths after 20 weeks of gestation divided by the number of live births + the number of deaths after 20 weeks of gestation.
Late Fetal death Rate
number of deaths after 28 weeks of gestation divided by the nuber of live births + the number of fetal deaths after 28 weeks or more of gestation.
Crude Birth Rates
The number of live births divided by the population at midpoint of the year
Spatial clustering
Aggregation of events in a geographic region
general fertility rate
The number of live births divided by the number of women aged 15-44 at the midpoint of the year.
perinatal mortality rate
number of late fetal deaths after 28 weeks of gestation plus the infant deaths within 7 days of birth divided by the number of live births + the number of late fetal deaths.
Descriptive Epidemiology
the occurrence of disease according to the variables of person, place, and time.
Descriptive Epidemiology provides valuable information for:
disease prevention
design of interventions
conduct of additional research
A descriptive Epidemiologic study:
is concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
Aims of descriptive epidemiology
1. evaluate trends in health and disease.
2. basis of planning and evaluating health services.
3. identify problems to be studied and suggest areas that may be fruitful for investigation.
Case reports
Look and a single occurrence of a noteworthy health-related incident or a small collection of such events.
Case series
A larger occurrence of a disease.
cross-sectional studies
an investigation that examines the relationship between diseases and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a specific time. A type of prevalence study
Person variables
Age
Sex
Race/Ethnicity
Socioeconomic status
marital status
nativity
Point Epidemic
the response of a group of people in a specific place to a common source of infection, contamination, or other etiologic factor to which they were exposed almost simultaneously.
5 major race/ethnicity categories in the census.
white
black/african american
american indian/alaska native
asian
native hawaiian/ pacific islander
nativity
place of origin. subdivisions are foreign born and native born
socioeconomic status
a person's position in society that is oftentimes based on a persons income level, education level, and type of job
social class gradient
an association of SES with levels of morbidity and mortality with those at the lowest SES level confronted with the highest morbidity and mortality from numerous causes.
health disparities
differences in the occurrence of diseases and adverse health conditions in the population.
place variables
international
national
urban-rural differences
localized patterns of diseases
Secular Trends
gradual changes in the frequency of diseases over long time periods
Cyclic Trends
increases and decreases in the frequency of a disease over a period of several years or within a year.
Clustering
a closely related group series of events or cases of a disease with well defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place.
temporal clustering
the occurrence of events related to time.